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Explosive speed.
Muscle cells have to do a lot of work during exercise. They need energy which they get
from the breakdown of sugar such as glucose. This process is called respiration.
Aerobic respiration is the complete breakdown of glucose using oxygen to release lots of
Glucose + oxygen = lots energy + carbon dioxide + water
In order to get more oxygen to muscle cells for aerobic respiration, the lungs must breathe
faster and the heart beat faster.…read more

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We may be breath properly (good health), but a fit person would breathe fewer times per
second because their lungs were more efficient at oxygenating the blood.
You can be in good health but not very fit!
Question: Is it possible to be in poor health, but still a fit person? Explain.
Being fit is the measure of efficiency that your muscles/organs can do, however, being
healthy means that your body can fight off infection or disease well.…read more

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Blood reaches all parts of the body because it is under pressure carrying food and oxygen to
all cells.
Blood pressure measurements check the health of the heart ideally once a month at a certain
age.…read more

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Again, having a salty diet can increase your blood pressure if consumed in excess.
Question: Alcohol can damage blood vessels causing them to become leaky and burst.
The same volume of blood therefore has to pass through fewer blood vessels. How might
this affect blood pressure?
This would decrease blood pressure as the same amount of blood is being transported
through the body but with many other means rather than just a couple.
Question: How might exercise affect blood pressure? Explain.…read more

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Carbohydrates: These provide energy. They are made up of small units called
sugars. Complex carbohydrates are made up of lots of sugar units bonded together.
During digestion, these sugar molecules are separated so they can pass through the
walls of the intestine and be carried by the blood. Sugars are then broken down
during respiration in cells to release energy.
(b) Protein: These molecules are needed for growth and repair. They are made of
small units called amino acids.…read more

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As their bodies are more muscular, they will need more oxygen for all of their mass
muscles. If people are taller, they need more energy for the oxygenated blood to travel
all the way along their bodies to where the energy is needed most.
66% of men and 53% of women are overweight.
We can compare the amount of body mass in relation to height using something called the
`Body Mass Index (BMI)'.…read more

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The recommended daily amount (RDA) of protein that should be eaten can be calculated
RDA (grams) = 0.75 x body mass (kg)
Question: Complete the following table:
Macronutrient How the body deals with excess macronutrient
Carbohydrate Stores excess as fat
Fat Gets expelled out of the system
Protein Gets turned into muscle (if worked into)
Question: A man is 576cm tall. He is 95 kg in mass. Calculate his BMI and say whether
he is overweight.
Question: For the same person, calculate his RDA.…read more

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People with nut allergies must be very careful
Question: Why might people have special diets?
People might have special diets due to religious/moral beliefs or because they simply
are allergic to some foods.
Question: How can a poor selfimage lead to a poor diet?
If some people hate their image, they could become psychologically damaged and
develop anorexia or bulimia. Some people may become teased because of their image
and this could lead to comfort eating.…read more

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The acid in stomach helps with the digestion of protein in the food (helps break it down). In
addition, there are certain enzymes found in the stomach that only work in acidic conditions.
One of these is called pepsin. The pepsin in the stomach starts to break down proteins
(very long complex molecules) into shorter chain of amino acid molecules called peptides!
Fat molecules are broken down by ______ enzyme into fatty acids and glycerol.…read more


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