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Name ______Casey Hindon_______

OCR Gateway GCSE Science

B1: Understanding ourselves

Fit for life

Footballers need special training programmes. They must develop their:


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Explosive speed.

Muscle cells have to do a lot of work during exercise. They need energy which they get
from the breakdown of sugar such as glucose. This process is called respiration.

Aerobic respiration is the complete breakdown of glucose using oxygen to release lots of

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fitness is that extra blood vessels develop to our muscles, delivering oxygenated blood and
removing carbon dioxide more efficiently.

We may be breath properly (good health), but a fit person would breathe fewer times per
second because their lungs were more efficient at oxygenating the blood.

You can be in…

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Blood reaches all parts of the body because it is under pressure carrying food and oxygen to
all cells.

Blood pressure measurements check the health of the heart ideally once a month at a certain

Question: What type of blood vessel carries blood under pressure?

Question: Why is…

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Again, having a salty diet can increase your blood pressure if consumed in excess.
Question: Alcohol can damage blood vessels causing them to become leaky and burst.
The same volume of blood therefore has to pass through fewer blood vessels. How might
this affect blood pressure?
This would decrease blood…

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(a) Carbohydrates: These provide energy. They are made up of small units called
sugars. Complex carbohydrates are made up of lots of sugar units bonded together.
During digestion, these sugar molecules are separated so they can pass through the
walls of the intestine and be carried by the blood. Sugars…

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As their bodies are more muscular, they will need more oxygen for all of their mass
muscles. If people are taller, they need more energy for the oxygenated blood to travel
all the way along their bodies to where the energy is needed most.

66% of men and 53% of…

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The recommended daily amount (RDA) of protein that should be eaten can be calculated

RDA (grams) = 0.75 x body mass (kg)

Question: Complete the following table:

Macronutrient How the body deals with excess macronutrient

Carbohydrate Stores excess as fat

Fat Gets expelled out of the system

Protein Gets…

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People with nut allergies must be very careful

Question: Why might people have special diets?
People might have special diets due to religious/moral beliefs or because they simply
are allergic to some foods.

Question: How can a poor selfimage lead to a poor diet?
If some people hate their image,…

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The acid in stomach helps with the digestion of protein in the food (helps break it down). In
addition, there are certain enzymes found in the stomach that only work in acidic conditions.
One of these is called pepsin. The pepsin in the stomach starts to break down proteins


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