Complete A2 relationship's notes

Overview of A2 relationships

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Reward/Need Satisfaction Theory
Byrne and Clore (1970)
came
up
w i
th
thi
s expl
anat
ion
for
shor
t
ter
m r
elat
ionshi
ps
The
theor
y suggest
s t
hat
w e
develop
roma nt
ic
rel
ati
onshi
ps
thr
ough cl
assi
cal
and
opera nt
condi
ti
oni
ng.
I
f
w e
associ
ate
some one
w i
t
h
a posi
ti
ve f
eeli
ng (
i.
e.
happi
ness,
exci
tement
)
then
w e
w i
l
l
grow t
o l
i
ke
that
per
son and
w oul
d want
t
o be ar
ound t
h em as
mu ch
as
possi
ble
(cl
assi
cal
condi
ti
oni
ng)
I
ndivi
dual
s can
also
rei
nfor
ce and
reward
ou r
behavi
our
whi
ch
w oul
d al
so
make
us
li
ke
them
and
w ant
t
o
spend
ti
me wit
h t
hem (operant
condi
ti
oni
ng)
The
needs
w hi
ch
w e
look
for
t
o be
ful
fi
l
led
are
such
as
sexual
,
soci
al,
f
inanci
al,
emot
ional
needs.
Hamilton et al (1980) took a volunteer female graduates sample and asked them to rate pictures of
men based on physical attractiveness. Those who were listening to positive music rated the men as
most attractive, compared to those who were listening to negative music.
Griffith (1969) gave participants a task to complete. Those who were praised by their experimenter liked
him and found him more attractive than those who were given bad results.
Evaluation
+ ve A
suffi
c i
e nt
expl
an at
ion for f
riendships, heterosexual and homosexual relationships.
If our friends
don't reward us in any way, with emotional/social support for example, then we will no longer want to be
friends with them
ve I
t
doesn't
expl
ain paren t ch i
l
d relat
io nsh ip s wh ere t
h e par
en t
may gi
ve
mo r
e
than
w hat
t
hey t
ake.
For
example
is
such a
sce nario w h er
e a
tee nag e r i
s
a lso
mo o dy
w i
t
h
the
parent
yet
t
he par
e nt
cont
inues
to
l
ove t
heir
chi
ld.
Therefore it is not true for all relationships
ve
The
the ory
is
very hea vi
ly
infl
u enced by c ont
ext
be cause
a prostitute may satisfy a man's sexual
needs but he does not develop a romantic attachment because she does not fulfil his emotional needs
ve The
mo d el
do es n ot
con sid er
t
he f
ac t
t
h a t
we like to give as well as take and how complicated the
human mind is. It
a ssume s th at
w e
a re
s el
fish
b eings. A s
w ell
as t
his i
t
h as been proved
that women
focus more on giving rather than taking (Lott et al)
w hich i
s
an
e vol
u ti
on a r
y perspect
ive.
The ref
o r
e the re
mu st
some r
ea so n beh i
n d
th i
s
ve
Mo st studies su ppo r
ting the th e or
y ar
e l
abor
ator
y st
u die s
w h i
c h mean s t
hey lack mu nd ane r
eal
is m.
The situations created in the lab experiments do not mirror real life experiences therefore we cannot be
sure that the results are true to life
Similarity Theory
Byrne et al (1986)
A
few
ye ar
s l
ater
Byr
ne and
his
compani
ons
c ame
up
w i
th
5 f
act
ors
w hi
ch
they
bel
ieve
inf
luence
the
f
ormati
on of
r
oma nt
ic
rel
ati
onshi
ps
the
most
.
PHYS I
C AL
AT TRACT I
O N
Cunningham (1986) found out
t
hat
u ni
ver
sall
y mal
es
pref
er younger
f
ema l
es
and
females
pref
er
older ma le s.
We
lo ok
for
someone
w ho
is
eit
her
on t
he same
att
ract
ion
level
as
us
or
more
att
ract
ive
(Walster et al (1969)
PERSONALI
TY
opposi
tes
att
ract
or
bi
rds
of
the
same
feat
her
f
lock
toget
her
?
ATTI
TUDE
att
it
udes
towar
ds
li
fe,
new exper
iences,
r
eli
gion,
sex,
money
ect
DEMO G RAPHIC FACTOR S
ther
e ar
e f
a ct
ors
such
as
sex,
gender
,
ethi
cal
backgr
ound,
r
eli
gious
bel
ief
s.
The
thi
ngs t
hat
def
ine
us
ethi
cal
ly
SI
MILARITY
&
FA MILARITY
we f
ind
those
w ho
are
mo st
f
ami
li
ar t
o us
to
b e
most
at
tr
act
ive.
Al
so
those
who
are
simi
l
a r
t
o us
(i
.e.
i
n physi
cal
att
ract
iveness
) we
fi
nd most
at
tr
acti
ve

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Evaluation
+ve
We ar
e mor
e l
i
kely
to
get
along
w i
th
people
w ho
are most
si
mi lar
t
o us.…read more

Page 3

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Evaluation
+ve
Staf
for
d and Canary
(2006 )
car
ri
ed out
a
que st
ionnai
re
study
on 200
ma rr
ied
U S
couples
whi
ch showed t
he coupl
es who
had equal
it
y i
n t
heir
rel
ati
onshi
p were
mo st
happy.…read more

Page 4

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Lee's Model (1984)
Lee
came
up wit
h hi
s model
aft
er anal
ysi
ng 112
premari
tal
r
oma nt
ic
rel
ati
onshi
ps.
H e
suggest
ed t
hat
t
he st
ronger
a r
elat
ionshi
p seems t
he l
onger
it
wi
ll
t
ake f
or
the
coupl
e
to
go t
hrough
all
t
hese
stages
because
they
have more wort
h f
ight
ing
for
and
savi
ng.
1.…read more

Page 5

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Evolutionary explanation of human reproductive behaviour
I
nter
and
Int
ra
sexual
sel
ecti
on
I
n most
sexual
ly
repr
oducing speci
es
mal
es
are
mor
e col
our
ful
t
han
f
ema l
es.
Darwin
­ t
heory
of
sexual
sel
ect
ion
has
2
processes.…read more

Page 6

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Men
want
mat
es
w ho
are
younger
t
han
them
= f
ert
il
i
ty.
Bot
h sexes
w ant
i
ntel
li
gence,
ki
ndness,
and
a dependabl
e par
tner
.
ve Mate choice in real life ­ studies such as Buss lack validity ­ give indication of expressed
preference rather than a reflection of what really happens. However, many real life studies support these
amte choice hypothesis' e.g.…read more

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The
p ossi
bil
i
ty of
sexual
i
nfi
deli
ty
causes di
ff
erent
probl
ems
for
men and
w omen.
Me n
ri
sk
invest
ing
in
of
fspr
ing t
hat
a r
nt
thei
rs
an d
w omen ri
sk
the
d i
versi
on of
r
esou r
ces
away f
rom her
fami
ly
­ sexual
j
ealousy
ma y have
evolved
at
a
solut
ion
to
these pr
oblems ­
Buss 1995.…read more

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P eopl
e have
equal
st
atus
power
and
knowl
edge)
Qualter and Munn
(2005)
suggest
ed
that
chi
ldr
en
lear
n f
rom
thei
r
exper
iences
w i
t
h
other
chi
ldr
en.
Nangle et al
(2003)
clai
me d
that
chi
ldr
en'
s soci
a l
i
nteract
ions
act
as
a t
rai
ning
ground
for
l
ater
soci
al
r
elat
ionsh i
p s.…read more

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H owever
Xiahoe and Whytes
fr
eedom
of
mat
e choi
ce
appear
ed to
promote
ma r
it
al
stabi
li
ty.
Continuity and discontinuity
Hsu (1953)
comp ared Chi
n ese
and
Ame ri
can cul
tur
es f
o und
that
t he
C hi
nese
had hi
gh r
e gar
d f
or
cul
ture and
view change wi
th suspi
cion.
Ame r
ican
cult
ure
e mphasis es
change.…read more

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