First 487 words of the document:
· conformity- yielding to group pressure to
change our behaviour
· obedience- behaving as instructed, usually in
response to an individual not group.
· Compliance- going along with others to gain their approval.
· Internalisation- going along with others because you have accepted their
view because it is consistent with your own.
Kelman three types of conformity:
· compliance- going along with others to gain approval.
· Internalisation-going along because you internally agree
· identification- identify and change to fit to social role.
Minority influence is best associated with internalisation, where as majority influence is best
associated with compliance.
This happens when people adopt the behaviour, attitudes or values of the majority after being
exposed to their values or behaviour (definition)
He asked 123 male student volunteers to take part in a simple
vision test. But he deceived everyone in the study as only one
person of each group was a real participant the rest were
confederates or colleagues of Asch. The purpose of the study
was to see how the lone participant would react to the
confederates behaviour. They were asked to look at three line,
and state which was the same length to the other line. The
answer was purposely obvious, but the confederates each time
purposely made the wrong answer. This resulted in the real
participant answering wrong 36.8%, meaning the conformed to the incorrect answer.
There were three main reasons given to why they conformed:
· perception- they some came to perceive the lines
similar to the majority
· judgement- some started to doubt their own judgement,
therefore yielding to majority view.
· Action- they knew the right answer but didn't want to
risk disapproval by the rest of the group (compliance)
variation of the Asch study:
· difficulty-first variation he made the differences between the lines harder to tell, so the the
correct answer was not so obvious this made conformity increase.
· majority-He decreased the size of the majority to just 1 or 2 people, this decreased
conformity but if there was 3 conformity was 30% so magic number is 3.
· ally- he added a confederate who was told to give the right answer, this gave the
participant support decreasing conformity from 37% to 5.5%
this study can be criticised for lacking validity as it is a lab experiment so lack a lot of ecological
validity as it cant be applied to real life. There is also a problem with ethics as the participants
were deceived making problems with informed consent. This is also caritisced as its era dependant
because it was carried out in the mccarthyism era so conformity was high. This was partly
overcome with a debrief at the end.
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Jenness (agrees)- students were asked to guess the number of beans in a bottle, he then got them
to discuss their answer in groups. When asking their estimate a second time he found there
individual estimate was replaced by the groups estimate. They let others perceived knowledge
influence them.…read more
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This shows in group and out groups have a chance of internalisation. But this does not apply to
majority as people would not want to align themselves with a deviant out group majority.
Zimbardo identification. (Stamford prison experiment)
Zimbardo wanted to test how people would behave if you put
them in a certain situation e.g. prison and allocated them social
roles e.g. prisoner or guard. This was to test if environment
played a role in whether they became increasingly aggressive or