Comparisons between Human Marxism, Strucutal Marxism and the Frankfurt School

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Examine the similarities and differences between Human Marxism, Structural Marxism and the Frankfurt
Human Marxism Structural Marxism The
Gramsci Althusser Frankfurt School
Focus on Dehumanising aspects Argues that the superstructure Profit is the driving force behind
of capitalism and institutions must function in capitalism rather than fulfilment
Alienation from product such a way that perpetuates and and happiness of employees
of labour favours capitalism Communism utopia
Capitalism is highly needs to be achieved
successful and therefore Critical of instrumental
continued relationships within
capitalism (structural)
Capitalism remains due to Social formation of 3 layers: Domination of the mass media
ideological control ruling class 1. Economic undermines creating false needs
posses over the masses. all levels
Social norms and values 2. Political
benefit the bourgeoisie 3. Ideological
Contradictions between these
layers causes social malfunction
False class consciousness and Conditions of existence must be Late capitalisms produces weak,
indoctrination make the masses met superficial conformists which are
believe they have free will Socialisation through easily manipulated by the media
You need a degree to institutions which and politicians
get a job however the incorporate capitalism Happiness is achieved
student will have to repay values through affective
their loan through HEGENOMY relationships and activity
necessary alienating which enriches them
True hegemony is not possible Ideological State apparatus
due to dual consciousness performs relative autonomy
1. Capitalist ideologies (reinforcing existing social
2. Experiences of arrangements)
exploitation and
common sense Repressive state apparatus
may be in forced to maintain
Class struggle between W.C order
intellectuals and the ruling elite Miners strikes met by
which is based on loyalty or police and army forces
May lead to the revolution (rise of
the W.C intellectuals) ­ Karl Marx
Too much emphasis on social
structure rather than interactions

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Too deterministic
Ideas based on unobservable
structures with little evidence and
empirical knowledge…read more


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