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The need to introduce
collectivisation
The Soviet Union was to be forced through a period of rapid
industrialisation.
In order to this, there was a great need for money.
However, capitalist countries were unlikely to make loans so other
alternatives had to be considered.
One alternative was to increase grain production and then sell it abroad.
Lenin and collectivisation
Lenin had supported collectivisation but only on a voluntary basis.
Stalin decided to abandon Lenin's ideas and wanted to "guide peasant
farming towards socialism."
Problems faced by Stalin
Russia was a massive country(22 million square kilometres)
Much of the east was barren but elsewhere the land was fertile
Russian farming methods were primitive and inefficient and peasants had
little knowledge about farming.
Majority of farms were too small to farm effectively.…read more

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The need to introduce collectivisation
· 1928- 75% of the Russian people were employed on the land and depended
on agriculture for their living.
· At the top end were the Kulaks, at the bottom end were the poor peasants
who were struggling to grow enough for their own needs
· However 60% of the peasants were self-sufficient and enjoyed a reasonable
standard of living and were also independent
· The Bolshevik leadership was mainly urban in origin, and sympathised with
the industrial workers in the towns and cites, but not with the peasants who
they thought were ideologically unreliable.
· Stalin knew that the peasants would resist collectivisation but there was no
longer any choice for compromise. He believed that it was time to bring the
peasants under control.…read more

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The Theory
· The intention behind collectivisation was to encourage peasants to
give up their privately owned land so that larger farms could be
created.
· A collective farm was known as a Kolkhoz.
· Advantages of such a large scale production was that:
· There was an increased output without the increase in costs
· There was greater division of labour which allowed individual
workers to specialise skills in one aspect of the work.
· Stalin also said that Sovkhozes would be set up, also known as a
state farm- This were made up of working class rather than
peasants and they also received a fixed wage.
· The state farms if they made a loss where covered by the state
whereas a collective farm would have to make back the money
themselves.
· Stalin urged peasants to form collective farms voluntarily at first but
he received opposition from the Kulaks.…read more

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The Kulaks
· The Kulaks were the ones who brought up
common pastureland and woodland and
took advantage of the peasantry who
wanted grazing land for their cattle and
firewood.
· You can see they were the wealthiest
farmers from their success after the first
world war when they owned 90% of
Russia's fertile land by 1917.…read more

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Collectivisation ­ The
Practice
· On 27th December 1929 a Central Committee
resolution ordered the start of enforced
collectivisation.
· Lenin sent Party Officials into the
countryside to organise collectivisation of all
farming land.
· Police and Red Army units confiscated grain
and livestock to feed towns and cities.
· Those who did not want to hand over their
stock sold it off cheaply or destroyed them.
· On 30th January 1930, Stalin approved the
resolution ­ On /measures of the
Elimination of Kulak Households in District
of Comprehensive Collectivisation.…read more

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