Cold War: Up to Detente

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Cold War
The Grand Alliance:
America Russia
Large size Large Size
Capitalist Communist
Freedom Equality
America and Russia disagree on ideology ­ a set of ideas.
The Breakdown of the Grand Alliance:
Between 1943 and 1945, the leaders of the Grand Alliance met at three international conferences to
make future plans.
The Tehran Conference 1943:
28 November ­ 1 December 1943
Plans for the reconstruction of Europe following WW2
President Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Josef Stalin agreed that the USSR should have a sphere of
influence (an area where communism would be respected)
It would guarantee that the USSR was not threatened by any of its close countries.
The `Big Three' did not agree on Germany's future.
Stalin thought that Germany should be punished for starting WW2by giving up territory and pay
reparations. (Would ensure that Germany was never a threat again.)
The Yalta Conference Feb 1945
About
To discuss what was to happen to Europe after WW2 ­ Stalin, FDR, Churchill
Stalin and Roosevelt shared a good relationship so Churchill felt isolated
Main Agreements
Stalin would help USA fight against Japan after Germany defeated
Germany and Berlin would be divided into 4 zones (France, USSR, Britain and USA)
Hunt down Nazi war criminals and put them on trial
Allow liberated countries to have free election
Soviet's to have sphere of influence in Eastern Europe
Disagreements
Germany on how much they should pay in reparations, Stalin wanted high figure but Roosevelt and
Churchill agreed it best to not punish them too harshly
Poland Stalin had already set up communist government in Poland & wanted recognition of his power
in E. Europe. Churchill and FDR able to persuade Stalin to have free elections in Poland

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The Potsdam Conference July 1945
About
Changes happened: FDR died and Churchill replaced ­ Stalin, Truman, Attlee, (Truman hated
communism with a passion). USSR occupied E. Europe. Stalin refused to demilitarise the Red Army.…read more

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Stalins Takeover of Eastern Europe:
Became a satellite state (officially independent but is controlled by another country)
Dollar Imperialism- expanding Americas empire by using money.
Cominform 1947:
Communist Information Bureau
Stick policy
Across Europe and international.
Eastern Europe government refused to accept that Marshall Aid.
Coniform consolidated the power of the USSR through eastern Europe.
Kept countries loyal.
Comecon 1949:
The council for Mutual Economic Assistance
Carrot policy
Comecon was Stalins answer to the Marshall Plan.…read more

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Warsaw Pact:
Stalin saw NATO as an aggressive alliance .
In 1955, USSR set up rival organisation.
Military alliance of 8 nations.
Members were to supports each other if attacked.
Joint command structure set up under Soviet.
Supreme Commander.
Hungary:
In 1953 Stalin died and this caused Hungary to uprise (1956) this was known as the `destalinization'
He was responsible for over 20 million deaths.
Nikita Khrushchev gave a `secret speech' which promised an end of Stalinism.…read more

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The Berlin Wall:
In 1961 America had 20 times more nuclear weapons than the USSR.
Kennedy's refused to retreat is called Khrushchev's Bluff forcing him to back down.
Khrushchev couldn't get Americans to leave West Berlin but he had to solve the refugee problem.
So he built a wall dividing Berlin in half.
On the night of 12 August 1961, East German troops secretly built a wall.
It stopped East Germans going to the west and ended the refugee problem.…read more

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The Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia:
Soviet tanks rolled into Czechoslovakia on the evening of 20 August 1968.
Dubcek ordered the people not to respond and panic.
There was a great deal of non-violent civil disobedience.
Many people stood in front of the tanks holding signs and banners.
Consequences of the Czech Crisis:
USA:
They were in the Vietnam war, using lots of money.
Said they were helping publicly.
Against the Czechoslovakia invasion.…read more

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