Cold War notes

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  • Created on: 15-05-14 18:35
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Cold War
- Cold War: war without actual fighting- instead, espionage, propaganda, threats, wars fought
by proxy (i.e. Through other countries, e.g. Vietnam)
- "Big 3" = President Franklin Roosevelt, Stalin (General Secretary of USSR), PM Winston Churchill
Key features of the Cold War:
- Spying (e.g. American U2 spy planes took photos/found out military operations- flew high to
avoid being shot)
- Propaganda (e.g. Communism promoted through sporting success, especially in Olympics)
- Arms race- to get more weapons/better technology than opponent- Mutually Assured
Destruction (MAD) theory race = war deterrent
- Space race- Star Wars project, race to launch first satellite/first man in space
- Loans/aid for less developed states- to win their support (e.g. Marshall Aid, Comecon)
Capitalism Communism
Politics Several parties. Voters able to choose + 1 party state. No choice. Unable to change
change government government
Economy Most businesses/industry privately State-controlled industry/profit only- for
owned- profit goes to private company everyones benefit
Beliefs Some are wealthier. Little media Everyone equal. Media censorship. Belief
censorship. Spread influence abroad to in world Communist revolution. No
encourage trade/for profit freedom of speech
Causes of long-term tension:
- Capitalist help given during Bolshevik revolution to crush it
- Hitler wanted to expand- appeasement from Allies USSR thought they would encourage
- Nazi-Soviet non-aggression Pact (promised not to fight for 10yrs, USSR would deliver raw
materials to Germany for weapons and Poland would be invaded and partitioned)
Causes of short-term tension:
- Delayed opening of 2nd front Stalin was frustrated
- Stalin + Roosevelt were friends Churchill felt left out already had been opposed to
Bolshevik revolution + suspicious of Stalin's motives in East, now he was convinced troops would
stay in countries after liberated from Germany (they had entered during WWII)
- Britain had gone to war to stop USSR taking control of Poland (Stalin thought this would stop
future invasions)
- Grave of Poles found
- USSR didn't help during Warsaw uprising
- When Poland invaded, government sent to exile went to London + helped with war until ready
to return. Stalin claimed to have Polish government in Moscow- who was legitimate one? Most
Poles believed London one was true government
WW2 deaths- total 50
Yalta conference: million
- Agreements: Germany divided into 4 zones and Berlin into 4 sectors USSR- 28 million
(US, British, French, Soviet). Countries liberated from German Germany- 6 million
occupation free elections to choose government. USSR member (many civilians due to
of UN along with rest of Big 3 to keep peace. Nazi criminals hunted concentration camps)
down and tried internationally. USSR's sphere of influence (surrounding countries had to be

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Disagreements: Stalin wanted higher reparations for Germany than others, Stalin wanted
Polish border to be further West + `friendly' government for protection from Germany (but
free elections agreed as Allies worried it would be Soviet-controlled otherwise- Stalin had no
intention of this though)
Potsdam conference:
- Agreements: Germany divided as agreed (but boundaries of zones argued over), democracy re-
established and demilitarised. Most of reparations (to be paid in equipment) USSR (suffered
most), Nazi party banned, leading Nazis removed from positions + tried.…read more

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Security: wanted a zone of Soviet-controlled states as buffer against invasions (huge
casualties after recent German invasions)
- Soviet expansionism
- Stalin wanted to keep control after previous invasions (1812, 1914, 1941) and wanted revenge on
Hungary, Romania, Austria and Italy for lending troops for 1941 invasions
- UK and USA though USSR was expanding for political reasons (to expand empire/Communism)
Pattern for satellite states' establishment
=independent state subject to another country's influence (e.g.…read more

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Consequences of Berlin blockade
- Truman determined to `get tough' with Stalin as Berlin blockade seen as test- if West gave in,
zones would be taken next- also wanted Berlin to be a symbol of freedom behind Iron Curtain
- Stalin sped up A-bomb program
- Increased East-West rivalry
- NATO set up by Western allies (attack on one member = attack on all)
- USSR's Warsaw Pact
- Germany and Berlin officially split
Reasons for Berlin Crisis of 1961
- Berlin was a gap…read more

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Effects of events at the Bay of Pigs
- Kennedy humiliated
- Castro seen as hero position strengthened in Latin America
- Castro pushed closer to USSR asked for military help Krushchev happily gave missiles
- USA's Operation Mongoose began (=series of attempts to remove Castro, e.g.…read more

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SALT2 conditions
- Limit of 2400 nuclear delivery vehicles (ICBMs, SLBMs, heavy bombers) per side
- Limit of 1320 MIRV systems per side
- Ban on construction of new land-based ICBM launchers
- Limits on new types of strategic offensive weapons
General Secretaries of USSR
General Secretary of USSR Communist Party Years of power Why power ended
Josef Stalin 1945-53 Died
Georgi Malenkov 1953-56 Sacked
Nikita Krushchev 1956-64 Sacked
Leonid Brezhnev 1964-82 Died
Yuri Andropov 1982-84 Died
Konstantin Chernenko 1984-85 Died
Mikhail Gorbachev 1985-91
Brezhnev…read more

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USSR exports were low quality (e.g. Lada cars, Qualiton records).…read more


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