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Cold War
- Cold War: war without actual fighting- instead, espionage, propaganda, threats, wars fought
by proxy (i.e. Through other countries, e.g. Vietnam)
- "Big 3" = President Franklin Roosevelt, Stalin (General Secretary of USSR), PM Winston Churchill

Key features of the Cold War:
- Spying (e.g. American U2 spy…

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- Disagreements: Stalin wanted higher reparations for Germany than others, Stalin wanted
Polish border to be further West + `friendly' government for protection from Germany (but
free elections agreed as Allies worried it would be Soviet-controlled otherwise- Stalin had no
intention of this though)

Potsdam conference:
- Agreements: Germany divided…

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- Security: wanted a zone of Soviet-controlled states as buffer against invasions (huge
casualties after recent German invasions)
- Soviet expansionism
- Stalin wanted to keep control after previous invasions (1812, 1914, 1941) and wanted revenge on
Hungary, Romania, Austria and Italy for lending troops for 1941 invasions
- UK…

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Consequences of Berlin blockade
- Truman determined to `get tough' with Stalin as Berlin blockade seen as test- if West gave in,
zones would be taken next- also wanted Berlin to be a symbol of freedom behind Iron Curtain
- Stalin sped up A-bomb program
- Increased East-West rivalry

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Effects of events at the Bay of Pigs
- Kennedy humiliated
- Castro seen as hero position strengthened in Latin America
- Castro pushed closer to USSR asked for military help Krushchev happily gave missiles
- USA's Operation Mongoose began (=series of attempts to remove Castro, e.g. By sending

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SALT2 conditions
- Limit of 2400 nuclear delivery vehicles (ICBMs, SLBMs, heavy bombers) per side
- Limit of 1320 MIRV systems per side
- Ban on construction of new land-based ICBM launchers
- Limits on new types of strategic offensive weapons

General Secretaries of USSR
General Secretary of USSR Communist…

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- USSR exports were low quality (e.g. Lada cars, Qualiton records). Everyone guaranteed job +
cheap housing + services no incentive to innovate + raise standards
- Immense illegal market of Western goods + currency- tourists offered roubles at 3 to 5 times
official rate (more roubles for less foreign…


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