Cognitive Psychology - memory

recap for AS AQA cognitive psychology.

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Cognitive Psychology ­ Memory
DURATION Measured in seconds Measured in hours, days
and minutes. and years.
CAPACITY 7 (+/-) chunks Potentially unlimited
ENCODING Acoustic or Visual Semantic (meaning)
Key terms:
Short term memory ­ your memory for immediate events.
Long term memory ­ your memory for events that have happened in the past,
potentially unlimited duration and capacity.
Duration ­ a measure of how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available.
Capacity ­ measure of how much can be held in memory.
Encoding ­ the way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory.
Chunking ­ Miller proposed that the capacity of STM can be enhanced by grouping
sets of digits or letters into chunks.
Sensory memory ­ this is the information at the senses that can be stored for a
short period of time.
Central executive ­ monitors and coordinates all other mental functions in working
Phonological loop ­ encodes speech sounds in working memory typically involving
maintenance rehearsal.
Visuo-spatial sketchpad ­ encodes visual information in terms of separate objects as
well as the arrangements of these objects in ones visual field.
Episodic buffer ­ receives input from many sources, temporarily stores the
information and then integrates it in order to construct a mental episode of what is
being experienced.
Word ­ length effect ­ the observation that people remembers lists of short words
better than lists of long words.
Eyewitness testimony ­ the evidence provided in court by a person that witnessed a
crime, with a view to identifying the perpetrator of the crime.
Leading (misleading) question ­ a question that, either by its form or its content,
suggests to a witness what answer is desired.
Cognitive interview ­ a police technique for interviewing witnesses to a crime, which
encourages them to recreate the original context in order to increase the
accessibility of stored information.

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Short term memory studies ­
DURATION: Lloyd and Margaret Peterson (1959) recall experiment.
CAPACITY: Miller (1956) the magic number seven (give or take two).
Long term memory studies ­
Bahrick et al ­ recall from yearbook.
Shepard (1967) duration of LTM.
Multi-store model ­
The multi store model is an explanation of how memory processes work. Atkinson and
Schiffrin established the model. They proposed direct relationship between rehearsal in STM
and the strength of the LTM. The more rehearsed the better it is remembered.…read more

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Working memory model ­
Baddely and Hitch ­ felt that STM was not just one store but a number of different stores.
Evidence supporting ­ Hitch and Baddely (two tasks at the same time)
Strenghts ­ model explains observations made by psychologists and the partial short term
memory difficulties experienced by individuals with brain damage.
Weknesses ­ concern that central executive is not so detailed.
Eyewitness Testimony ­
Loftus and palmer: misleading questions.…read more

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Mnemonics (verbal/visual), mind maps, spider diagrams.…read more


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