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Cognitive Psychology
STM duration
Peterson & Peterson: Recall tested with nonsense trigram; after this was shown PPs had to
count back in threes from a number, PPs remembered 90% at 3secs and 2% at 18secs.
Nairne: PPs asked to recall the same information, memory can last up to 96…

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Sensory memory consists of environmental stimuli from eyes, nose, ears, tongue etc. Most receives
no attention and doesn't remain in SM for long. If attention is given data is transferred to STM.
Information here disappears quickly unless rehearsed, or if new information displaces it. STM has a
limited capacity. If…

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Baddeley and Hitch (1974)

Central Executive: Key component where all information goes, has a limited capacity, role is
to delegate tasks to its resources
Phonological loop: Deals with auditory information, made up of a phonological store (inner
ear) and articulatory process (maintenance rehearsal).
Visuo-spatial sketchpad: Deals with visual and…

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Shows STM as an array on different kinds of memory, instead of just one store
It's not clear what exactly the central executive does. Some psychologists say its role is too
vague and some say it's the same as paying attention to a task.
EVR performed well in a…

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Yuille and Cutshall found when they interviewed witnesses of a real armed bank robbery;
witnesses had accurate recall 4 months after the event and even when leading questions
were used.
Acquisition or Retrieval?
Bekerian and Bowers showed that leading questions (post event information) affect recall of
information, not storage.…

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The Yerkes Dodson law shows that EWT increases as emotional arousal increases until a
certain point but then decreases as emotional arousal increases further.
The weapon focus effect by Loftus: accuracy of EWT is affected negatively in violent crimes,
arousal may focus witness on central details and not peripheral. Method:…

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Fisher and Geiselman found people remembered better when given retrieval clues. Based on
this they developed the cognitive interview, which replaced standard interview techniques.
Original CI had four components:
1. Report Everything: witness recalls everything, even if they think it irrelevant.
2. Mental reinstatement of original context: where witness mentally…

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Mnemonic techniques accelerate learning by actively linking the new information with
existing `memory hooks' created for this purpose. When these `memory hooks' are
presented, the associated new information can be recalled.
Elaborative Rehearsal
Mnemonic techniques make us elaborate the information to be remembered.
The amount of rehearsal is important (maintenance…


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