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Cognitive Psychology

Milner et al (1957): Case Study of HM

Patient with severe epilepsy
Seizures based in the hippocampus
In 1953; doctors remove this part of the brain#
Results: reduces epilepsy but suffers memory loss. Unable to form new LTM. Could still talk
and use his procedural memory. Episodic memory…

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Bahrick et al 1975: LTM

392 pps asked to list their classmates (free recall). Then shown photos and asked to recall
names of people shown (photo recognition) or given names to match to the photo (name
Within 15 years, 90% of names and faces and 605 acuuracte on free…

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Multi-store model; Atkinson and shiffrin.

3 stores; sensory, short term and long term
Info from our environment initially goes into our sensory memory. Whatever you pay attention to
or think about will be encoded and passed into the STM
STM has a finite duration, but if info is processed, it…

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Working Memory Model; Baddeley and Hitch 1974.

Their model proposes that STM is made up of different stores.

Central executive is the key component. Has limited capacity and controls the two slave systems:

Articulatory-phonological loop: holds speech based information. Contains a phonological
store (inner ear) and an articulatory process. (inner…

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Eyewitness Testimony

Evidence provided by people who witnessed a particular crime. Relies on recall from
Includes description of criminals and crime scenes.
Witnesses are often inaccurate in recollection. This has implications during police
Cognitive psychologists work to find out what factors affect the accuracy and how it

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Valentine & Coxon (1997)
3 groups of pps (children, adults, elderly) watched a video of a kidnapping.
Then asked a series of leading and non leading questions
Elderly people and children answered more incorrectly to nonleading questions
Children misled more by leading questions
Age has an effect on accuracy of…

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Indep. Groups ­ pps in cog would have been naturally less suspectible to leading qns
than other group

Strategies for Memory Improvement

1. Jenkins and Russel ­ studied recall of words lists. Contained words that were highly
associated. Found participants tended to group associated words together even if


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