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Cognitive Approach applied to gambling and smoking
Cognitive explanations may be limited to specific addictions, may have less of an effect in chemical
addictions such as Heroin but better in understanding gambling
Davies, 1992: difficult to find conclusive results as addicts describe their behaviours differently depending
on who they are…

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Tate et al, 1994: told smokers that they would expect no negative experiences during a period of
abstinence, which in turn led to fewer reported somatic and psychological effects than those who were not
so well-informed. Those told to expect somatic but not psychological problems later experienced more
severe and…

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