Cognitive Approach

Its missing Godden & Baddeley's deep sea divers but I've condensed each concept into 6/7 desciption points and 6/7 aluation points. 

Note: Most of the points are a blend from various points given in the mark schemes and so, if you write these word for word in the exam, you should get the mark.

Its in a table format with key words on the left side so that you can print it out and use it as que cards/ revision cards as well.

Hope this helps! :)

KEY:

"::" stands for "Therefore,"

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  • Created by: Aditi
  • Created on: 17-05-14 01:13
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First 1290 words of the document:

Key Assumptions of Cognitive
Behaviour
ca n be l
ar ge ly
explai
n ed i
n
te rms of
how th e
Approach mind operates (ie:
th e
infor ma t
ion pr ocessin g mo del
).
Behaviour = Mind
Wh a t
we do d epe n ds on ourperception
of event
s an d
our
Action = Perception thou ght pr
oce ss.
Mind = computer
T hemind w
o r
ks i n
a si
mi lar
w ay t
o a computer: i
n pu tti
ng,
storing and r
e tr
iev ing data.
Mo d el
states t
ha t our min d w orkssimilar
t
o a comp ut
e r
.
The Computer Analogy
T he mind encodes i
nforma ti
on t
h a t
is
rec ei
ved fr
om ou r
Encodes sens es a
P C
en c ode s
infor ma t
ion
(r eceived
fr
o m t
he
k ey b oar
d )
.
Stores
T he mind stores i
n for
ma t i
on (i
n me mo ry) PC stor
es
inf
or ma ti
on on
a h ard dri
v e.
Output
T he mind outputs (vi
a
b e haviour
e g
cryin g) a PC ou t
p u ts
via a
pri
n ter or
t
h e scr
e en.
Informationprocessing model The inf
o r
ma tion
p r
oce ssi
n g mo del
sa ys
that t
he mind i
s
a n
(
Inputout
put
ma chi
n e)
input-output machine tha t
recei
ve s ,
i
n t
e r
p r
ets and
re sp o nds
to
the info.
Such as,
(wh i
le
c ro s sing
the
road):
Receives info.
T he mind receives info f r
om the sense s,
abo ut
t
he si
g h ts
and
Interprets the s ounds of
the tr
af fi
c o n t he road.
T he mind interprets tha t i
n f
o and
decide s
w het
he r
it
is s
a f
e t
o
Responds
cros s or
not.
T he mind responds w i
th behavi
o u r
eg .
C r
oss i
ng t
he
road /wait
ing a bi
t l
ong er.
The serial position effect
T he seri
al ef
fe ct sa ys tha t
h ow we l
l
unrela ted i
nfor
ma tio n
is
Position reme mb er
ed wil
l vary
acc or d ing
to
its position i
n
the l
ist.
Demonstrated by?
T his
isdemonstrated
b y
the
p r
ima ry
&
r ecen cy
eff
e ct.
Primary Effect ­ first items
Primary Effect: T hefirst items
o n t
he list
are
reme mb er
e d
w el
l
Recency Effect ­last few items
Recency Effect:
The last few items on
the l
ist are
r
eme mb ered wel
l
Middle Items ­ not remembered
Middle Items: Not remembered well as
th ey hav e no t
been
reh earsed
e noug h (so
h a ven't
passed i
nto t
h e L T M y et
) and
Interference Effect ­ cancel out
t
hey have
been i
n t
he
me mo ry f
or t
o o
long t
o r
e ma i
n in the
S TM
(
durati
on
18 30 se conds) t
he y have
been forgotten.
Interference
c ancancel out
r
e cency
e f
fect as i
t
p r
e v
e nt
s
r
ehea r
sa l
aft
er 30
seco nds, infor
ma t
ion
is
lost
.
Main Research Methods Used
C ase Studi
es ­
I.
e.
C lyde
We ari
ng and Phin ea s G age
Exp eri
me nt
s (u sual
ly
la b)
­ I
.e.
C r
aik
& T ul
vin g
Memory Definition:
T he process o frecalling
i
nfo
w hi
ch,
ma y n ot
be
t
here anymo re.
Definition recalling Consist
s of t
hree processes:
Encoding: T o
put some t
h i
ng i
nto a code (
ie
a chemic a l
tr
ace).
Encoding Storage:
As a result
of
t
he
e ncoding,
the
inf
o
is
stor
ed
w it
hin
Storage
t
he me mo ry
sys t
em.
Retrieval
Retrieval:
T o r
e cal
l
stored i
nfo.
F rom t
he me mory sys t
e m
(
aka recal
l or
reme mb eri
ng )
.
Measure of Memory
C apaci
ty: Ho w mu ch
inf
o. can
be held
in
the
me mo r
y
D ur
ation:
H ow
long t
h e
inf o
can be hel
d i
n t
he me mor y
Atkinson & Schiffrin's The Multistore
MS M says me mory i
s kept
in
3 sep arat
e,
dist
inct
st
ores
and
Model t
he i
nformati
on flows thr
ough
them.
(Description)
The i
n f
ormation comes as an
exac t
copy
fr
om the envi
ronment
Flows t
hrough our
sens es,
i
nto
our Sensory Memory, which
doesn't
Sensory Memory l
ast
long
as i
t
is f
ragil
e and
se nsi
ti
ve.

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Page 2

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Attention = STM I
f i
t i
s attended t
o ,
th e
informa t
io n pa sses i
n t
o
o urSTM,
w he re
Rehearsal = LTM i
t l
as t
s for
1 8 30
s eco n d s . The ST M can hold abo ut 5
t o 9
un r
e l
a ted it
e ms i
n
it
.…read more

Page 3

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Itcan explain real-life situations,
li
ke
w he n w e
reme mb e r
Craik & Lockhart's Levels of Process things w e do n ot me a n
to ,
a s memo r y
is
a by p rod u ct
o f
u s
(Evaluation) proc es s ing i
n f
o a nd
n ot
a co n sci
o u s "
thi
n g".…read more

Page 4

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Practical Application:
Schab (1991) fou n d
that not rein st
a t
ing t
h esmell of
Abernathy'40 (exam classroom) chocolate a t
re ca l
l r
e sul
ted i
n few e r
w ords bei
n g r
ec all
ed,
co mp a r ed w it
h w he n t
he
sme l
l
wa s
reinstat
e d.…read more

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Brewer & Treyens office items Brew er
&T r
eye ns h ave show n
that
w hen
p ps recall
ed i
te ms
f
rom an o f
fi
ce,
so me it
e ms we r
e rememb ered co rr
ectl
y but
ot her
Leading questions i
tems w er e
recall
ed t
h a t
weren't
t
here.…read more

Comments

Aditi

*evaluation points

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