Cognitive and Social Development Notes

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Human Development and IntelligenceA48HDHeriot Watt University
Cognitive Development in Humans Notes
Methods for studying small humans:
To understand small people, we must first understand how we can study them accurately, without
causing them any harm.
Other methods include:
Eye tracking
Interviews
Brain scans
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Human Development and IntelligenceA48HDHeriot Watt University
Sorting out the world: Perception
What is the infant's visual world like?
William James (1890) state that the world of an infant is one `blooming buzzing confusion'. But is it
really?
It was found that infants have perceptual consistency, can detect patterns, and segregate objects.
Perceptual consistency (or is it the same object?)
Slater et al (1990) used the habituation technique to familiarise infants with a set of cubes.
The infant was then shown two cubes.…read more

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Human Development and IntelligenceA48HDHeriot Watt University
Piaget's theory
Jean Piaget is considered the founder of developmental psychology. He proposed a theory on
human development that consists of universal (irrespective of culture) stages children go through
that are invariant (all occur at roughly the same time for all children, without being skipped or
reverted back to).
He proposed that children are active participants in their own development and learning.…read more

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Human Development and IntelligenceA48HDHeriot Watt University
Hood and Wilatts (1986): Conducted an experiment where the light was turned off when an infant
was playing with a toy. They found that the infant still reached for the toy, suggesting
understanding of object permanence.
Violations of Expectancy (VOEs) and Counting:
Karen Wynn (1992)
Tested infant's expectations of objects by setting up the mickey mouse figurines and
screen.
Infants appear surprised when the number isn't correct.…read more

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Human Development and IntelligenceA48HDHeriot Watt University
Vygotsky: Sociocultural development
Language:
Put emphasis on the role of social interaction in the development of children. He stated that
language and counting development are paramount in allowing children to develop their
own thoughts.
He states that learning needs to come before development.…read more

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