Cognitive Treatments for Mood Disorders- ESSAY PLAN

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Discuss Cognitive Treatments for Mood Disorders
CBT: > Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is treatment developed by Beck
> Works on Beck's belief that people have maladaptive attitudes that lead to
having and unrealistically negative view of the world, themselves and the
future (cognitive triad). This combined with illogical views leads to
developing automatic thoughts that are always negative
> The treatment aims to help people recognise their maladaptive thought
> 1220 sessions and follows four successive phases:
Phase 1 (increasing activity and elevating mood)> goals are developed
patient encourage them to become more confident and improve their
Phase 2 (examining and invalidating automatic thoughts)> patients keep
diary of their thoughts which the therapist challenges so that the patient
can see that they are irrational
Phase 3 (identifying distorted thinking and negative biases)> therapist
to make patient understand how their irrational, negative thoughts are
contributing to their depression and is creating a negative bias
Phase 4 (altering primary attitudes)> therapist helps patient challenge
their primary attitude which the central belief at the root of their
> Effectiveness hundreds of studies have found that CBT is effective in
helping patients with figures showing 5060% of clients making a full
recovery. Over the course of therapy, clients show improvements in their
cognitive functioning including progressively pessimism and positive
changes in selfconcept. Research has however suggested that therapy is
less effective when delivered in a group setting
> Evaluation It is argued that the therapist should not get to decide which
beliefs are irrational/ unacceptable raising ethical issues with
the treatment
This treatment is not suitable for bipolar patients and relies
the patients being both articulated and motivated for
Electroconvulsive Therapy: > A psychiatric treatment given to severely depressed
patients where antidepressants have had no effect
there is a risk of suicide
> The patient is anaesthetised and is given muscle
relaxant to minimise muscle spasms
> A brief electrical current is passed through the brain
via electrodes placed at the temples, the current
causes a seizure lasting between 3060 seconds
> Research shows that it is the seizure that creates the
antidepressant effect as opposed to the electrical

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Clinicians unsure of exactly how it works (one of the
reasons it is so controversial), theories include:
Causes the release of 5HT and Na into the synapses
Alters the blood flow in the brain, Nobler et al
reported ECT was associated with reduced blood
in the frontaltemporal regions
> Side effects short term> headaches, aching
long term> memory loss, personality
> Ethical issues unsure of how the treatment actually
works so can't predict all outcomes
some argue it is degrading and
inhumane…read more

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Effectiveness: this therapy has not been fully
researched but initial studies have
found that patients who IPT stayed
well for longer compared to the
placebo group
Elkin et al: > Research the efficacy of different treatments, 250 outpatients with
major depression were assigned one of four treatments for 16 weeks
CBT, interpersonal therapy, drug therapy and the placebo group.…read more


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