Slides in this set
THE HOLDERNESS COAST.
The coast stretches between the Bridlington and Flamborough head in the north and the
spurn head in the south.
It has the fastest eroding coastline in Europe. On average nearly 2 meters of its coastline
is lost every year. Since the Roman times, it has eroded by 4 km and 29 villages have
PROBLEMS FACING THE HOLDERNESS COAST.
It has the fastest eroding coastline in Europe.
Many villages have been lost.
Many people have been moved and many have become homeless.
It gets economically expensive since people have to be compensated for their properties.
It leads to destruction of property.…read more
The reason that lead to increased coastal erosion.
There are three reasons as to which lead to increased erosion along the
Holderness coastline. These include;
The geology of the coast is mainly comprised of chalk at Flamborough
north and boulder clay laid down in the last ice age south and finally the river
deposits it in the Humber estuary. Due to the weak mas of the clay particles, it
erodes more quickly.
ii. The fetch;
the Holderness coast is very exposed, the approaching waves have a long
fetch over the north sea.
iii. Most of the Material eroded from the cliffs is washed out to sea, the rest is
moved by long shore drift - the beaches are therefore narrow and do little to
protect the coastline. If the beaches were longer, the waves could have hit on
the beaches thus reducing their erosive power.…read more
Cliff erosion process at the coast
The two types involved in the rapid erosion of the clay cliffs on the Holderness
1.Cliff foot erosion;
this is caused by wave action at the base of the cliff. Cliff foot erosion
include the following processes
this is where advancing waves pick up sand and pebbles from the seabed . As
they break the material is brushed against the cliff cutting away the base.
this is where the advancing waves trap air inside the cracks in the cliff thus
increasing the air pressure. As the wave retreats, the air explodes weakening
joints and cracks leading to the breaking of the rock pieces.
this affects cliffs formed from alkalis e.g. chalk and limestone. Solution of
weak acids in sea water dissolves the rocks.…read more
2. cliff-face processes;
This is when the cliff face is affected by two sets of sub-aerial process. These are;
i. Weathering processes;
This involves the break down of the solid rock fragments into smaller fragments or dissolves
them chemically. The types of weathering that affect the coast include;
this includes any kind of mechanical action. The common example along the coast is
freeze-thaw. Water enters the cracks in the rock wen it rains and it freezes during cold
weather. The frozen water expands by 10% thus imposing pressure on the rock which
expands the crack. If this is repeated over and over the rock eventually breaks away.
As seedlings germinate, fine root hairs find their way into microscopic cracks in the rock. As
the roots grow, they enlarge the cracks in the rocks. Fully grown plants can be seen growing
out of solid rock and their roots break the rocks. If the plant dies, the rocks fall apart.
rainwater combines with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to form a weak carbonic acid
which dissolves the alkali chalk at Flamborough head, weakening it. But chemical weathering
has less effects than the rest types of weathering.…read more
ii. Mass movement processes.
· Slumping is the main form of mass movement affecting the clay cliffs along
the Holderness coast. Alternate wetting and drying of the clay causes it to
expand when wet and shrink when dry. This cause the soil to crack ,mainly
during the long dry periods. When it rains again the water rapidly enters the
cracks and percolates into the cliff. The clay then becomes slippery which
leads to it gaining extra weight and gravity causes it to slide down the
slopes. This is referred to as slumping/ landslide.…read more