Revision notes on coasts for GCSE Geography.

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  • Created on: 21-11-07 08:32
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Waves ­ are undulations on the surface of the water. They are caused by
wind blowing over the surface of the sea. The wave's size depends on
strength of the wind, the duration of the wind and the fetch. As the
wave approaches land the sea gets shallower, the shape of the wave
starts to change. It gets higher and will break on the shore.
Fetch ­ the length of water over which wind has blown before the waves
break on the coast.
Destructive Wave ­ a high wave with a backwash stronger than its
swash, which breaks frequently causing erosion.
Constructive Wave ­ a low wave with a swash which is stronger than its
backwash, which breaks gently encouraging deposition of beach
Swash ­ water which flows up the beach.
Backwash ­ water that drains back down the beach into the sea.
1) Hydraulic Action or Power ­ is the explosion of compressed air
trapped in cracks in cliffs by advancing waves.
2) Corrasion ­ occurs when rock particles are hurled by waves against
cliff surfaces.
3) Corrosion ­ is the chemical decomposition of rocks by sea water.
4) Attrition ­ is the breakdown of rock particles as they hit the cliff
face, and each other.
Wave cut platform ­ a gently slopping area of rock
which is exposed at low tide. It is made from the
boulders which have been eroded form the cliff.
Headlands ­ an area of land that sticks out into the
sea, made of hard rock, Eg. limestone.
Bays ­ an area which the sea has eroded, which
forms an indent in the coast, made of soft rock Eg.
Notches ­ an overhang at the bottom of a cliff which
shows undercutting by waves.
Cliffs ­ are the most common erosional landform found alone the coast.

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Caves ­ an area which has been hollowed out by the waves at the
bottom of a cliff.
Arches ­ caves are eroded the entire way through. An opening in the cliff
with rock above it and on either side.
Stacks ­ an arch collapse and becomes a stump, a piece of rock
surrounded by sea, standing away from the main coastline.
Stumps ­ stacks are eroded down until there is only a tiny stump left.…read more

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decrease the waves' energy on the cliff
boulders are dumped and enclosed in wire mesh. They form a
barrier which gradually decreases the waves' energy by dispersing
it. Quite cheap
Oil spills ­ The Sea Empress ­ Milford Haven 1996 Feb, Pembrokeshire
Fishermen has loss of trade
Hotels had less bookings
Wildlife died
Economic bennifits of oil are to great to overpower risk to the
Tourism ­ Brighton: Tourism generates more than £350,000,000 per year.…read more


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