Coastal Management Revision Booklet

  • Hard engineering
  • Soft engineering
  • Shoreline management plan
  • How to judge which management strategy to implement
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AS Geography 21st May 2010
Coasts Revision
COASTAL MANAGEMENT
HARD ENGINEERING
Hard engineering involves building some type of sea defence to protect the
coast from erosion and the risk of flooding, by working against the forces of
nature
EXAMPLES OF HARD ENGINEERING
Technique Nature and Purpose Strengths Weaknesses
Gabions Small rocks held in Simple, cheap Small scale
metal cages and effective solution. Metal
cage may fall
spilling contents
Groynes Wooden or rock Low cost and Terminal Groyne
barriers to trap beach easily repaired syndrome ­
material being moved Cause loss of
by LSD. sediment further
down coast
Rip-Rap Large rocks to Effective, cheap, Could be
(Rock absorb wave energy can look natural underscoured by
armour) backwash and is
expensive
Sea Walls Massive concrete Reasonably Foundations can
wall to absorb wave effective and be undercut
energy. Recurved used to protect which increases
sea wall is used to valuable or high further erosion of
reflect wave energy. risk property the beach.
Sea wall limits Expensive to
erosion and protects build and
against coastal maintain.
flooding
Chris Cartwright

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AS Geography 21st May 2010
Coasts Revision
Overall, there are a few advantages of hard engineering, such as the fact that
it offers instant protection against flooding, and can have some secondary
uses (i.e. Morecambe's secondary sea wall), the disadvantages outweigh the
advantages, and thus hard engineering is said to cause more problems that it
solves.
SOFT ENGINEERING
Soft engineering are solutions that work with and manipulate the natural
processes to reduce the impact of erosion and coastal flooding.…read more

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AS Geography 21st May 2010
Coasts Revision
Offshore Reefs
Old tyres are fastened together and are placed far out offshore
When the waves come in, the reefs act as wave `speed bumps', turning
destructive waves into constructive waves
Thus reducing erosion and increasing deposition
Advantages of offshore tyre reefs
Simple technology
Cheap to build ­ free resource (old tyres)
Ecological value ­ providing coal water fish habitats
Bring the coastline to equilibrium within 100 years
Disadvantages of offshore tyre reefs
Largely untested
May have pollution…read more

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