Coastal Environment Keywords.

Useful keywords to help understand the coastal environment processes and landforms.

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Coastal Environments-
Swash- movement of water up and down the beach as a wave breaks.
Backwash- movement of water down the beach as water from a wave returns to the sea.
Long shore drift- the process in which material is moved along the coast.
Corrasion- the erosive action of particles carried by rivers or wind etc.
Attrition- pebbles rubbing together in the water to make smooth rocks
Abrasion- the breakdown of rock through friction
Erosion- the wearing away of the coast by the sea
Deposition- Depositing material, the sand mud pebbles and silt carried by the water is
eventually dropped.
Cave- this process starts off with an ordinary cliff or piece of headland, there will always
be some weaker parts in the headland. The weaker rock is attacked with hydraulic power
and corrosion; this causes a small cave to form in the bottom of the cliff.
Arch- the hydraulic power and abrasion continue to attack the headland causing the weak
rock to break away even more forming an arch in the cliff
Stack- the arch will eventually collapse due to the strain of gravity and weathering upon
the rock with no headland underneath to support it. When the arch collapses it leaves the
retreated cliff and a stack of rock.
Stump- when part of the stack falls it creates a stump which is a piece of rock that sticks
out of the sea.
Soft management- management of the coast line through engineering, long-term and
sustainable solutions compared to hard engineering. Soft management includes beach
replenishment and managed retreat.
Hard management- management of the coast line through engineering, tend to be very
expensive, very obvious and have a high impact on the environment. Includes, wooden
Groynes, gabion Groynes and rock armour.


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