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Changing Coasts
Geological structure and rock type have a major influence on coastal development and landforms.
Contrasts between a named soft rock coast and a named hard rock coast in terms of cliff
profiles, cliff features and erosional land forms.
Investigating concordant/discordant coasts (headlands/bays), and the influence of joints and…

Page 2

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Feature Constructive Wave Destructive Wave
Season Summer Winter
Amplitude Smaller Larger
Wavelength Longer Shorter
Effect Deposits sand Erode sand
Swash/Backswash Stronger swash Stronger Backwash
Beaches Shallower Steeper
What's created? Beach berm Off shore bar

Coastal Erosion
Hydraulic action: Air can be trapped in joints and cracks on a cliff face.…

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Reaction with water (hydrolysis): Exfoliation: hot climates, rock surfaces are repeatedly heated
hydrogen reacts with minerals in rock + cooled so surface layer expands + contracts (day and night)
Acidic rainwater (carbonation): so peels leaving rounded rocks and hills.
carbonic acid reacts with calcium Root Action: roots penetrate and widen…

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Case Study: Barton-on-Sea

Causes of erosion
Physical Human
Sand at cliff top is permeable so Weight of houses weaken the cliff
precipitation saturates it and goes through Groynes prevent the sediment being
to clay which is impermeable and falls depositing downdrift so waves attack the
under additional weight (slumping). cliff…

Page 5

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Soft Engineering
Defence Description Benefits Costs
In-cliff Pipes reduce water pressure No visual pollution Disturbs the cliff
drainage and prevent saturation Less expensive
Cliff face Plants are used to make the cliff Least expensive Plant acids erode rock
vegetation more stable by absorbing Attractive Not strong enough to
water and…




Good resource, but there is some stuff missing such as:

Explore the possible consequences of climate change on marine erosion and deposition, including an increased frequency of storms and rising sea level.

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