Coastal Environments Revision Notes

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Sea level change ­ eustatic and isostatic change.
Coastlines of submergence and emergence and
associated landforms. Impact of present and
predicted sea level increase.
Coastal protection objectives and management
strategies ­ hard engineering: sea walls, revetments,
rip rap, gabions, groynes and barrages. Soft
engineering: beach nourishment, dune regeneration,
marsh creation, land use/activity management.
Case studies of two contrasting areas ­ one where
hard engineering has been dominant and one where
soft engineering has been dominant. To investigate
issues relating to costs and benefits of schemes,
including the potential for sustainable management.

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­ river sediment, cliff sediment, Constructive Waves ­ low frequency, low &long, elliptical cross profile. Tides
The coastal system ­ constructive and destructive wave transported sediment Powerful swash deposits material. Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon on the water of
waves, tides, sediment sources and cells. Processe wave action , tidal movement, They have a strong swash and a weak backwash. This means they our planet.…read more

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As silt and mud are deposited by the river or the tide, mudflats develop
3) The mudflats are colonised by vegetation that can survive the high saline conditions and periods of submergence
4) The plants trap more mud and silt and gradually create an area of marshland
Sea level change ­ Eustatic refers to worldwide variations of sea level resulting from climate (and so hydrological Rias partially submerged river valleys deep at mouth and narrower inland eg
eustatic and isostatic…read more

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Strong onshore winds force water to higher levels along the coasts so waves travel further
physical and inland
socioeconomic Tidal currents and surges funneled in coastal bottlenecks such as bay of Bengal forcing sea
levels higher.…read more

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COASTAL MANAGEMENT ­ to protect homes, businesses and the enivroment fromerosion and flooding as they have severe impacts. Where HARD ENGINEERING:
to protect is decided by costbenefit analysis Sea walls (sometimes recurved): aim to absorb wave energy. Benefits ­ deflect waves back out into the sea. Costs ­ maintenance; any slight gap will be exploited by
Four options hydraulic action. They also need drain outlets so that water does not accumulate behind them.…read more

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