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Sea level change ­ eustatic and isostatic change.
Coastlines of submergence and emergence and
associated landforms. Impact of present and
predicted sea level increase.
Coastal protection objectives and management
strategies ­ hard engineering: sea walls, revetments,
rip rap, gabions, groynes and barrages. Soft
engineering: beach nourishment, dune regeneration,…

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. inputs ­ river sediment, cliff sediment, Constructive Waves ­ low frequency, low &long, elliptical cross profile. Tides
The coastal system ­ constructive and destructive wave transported sediment Powerful swash deposits material. Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon on the water of
waves, tides, sediment sources…

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2) As silt and mud are deposited by the river or the tide, mudflats develop
3) The mudflats are colonised by vegetation that can survive the high saline conditions and periods of submergence
4) The plants trap more mud and silt and gradually create an area of marshland

Eustatic Changes…

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human cause(s) and its Strong onshore winds force water to higher levels along the coasts so waves travel further
physical and inland
socioeconomic Tidal currents and surges funneled in coastal bottlenecks such as bay of Bengal forcing sea
levels higher.
Combination of all

Human activity
Management of river…

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COASTAL MANAGEMENT ­ to protect homes, businesses and the enivroment fromerosion and flooding as they have severe impacts. Where HARD ENGINEERING:
to protect is decided by costbenefit analysis Sea walls (sometimes recurved): aim to absorb wave energy. Benefits ­ deflect waves back out into the sea. Costs ­ maintenance; any…

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