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Nerve cells electrical impulses along their length. They stimulate target cells by secreting
chemical neurotransmitters directly on to them. This results in rapid, short-lived and localised
Mammalian are that stimulate their target cells via
blood This results in slow, long-lasting and
The hormonal system consists of glands (group of cells that are specialised to secrete a useful
substance, eg pancreas secretes insulin) and hormones
Hormones diffuse directly into the blood then they are taken around the body by the circulatory
system.…read more

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Histamine and are local chemical
some mammalian cells and affect only cells in their immediate vicinity.
...are released from cells and only affect cells in immediate
Usually released by injured cells.…read more

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In flowering plants, specific growth factors diffuse from growing regions other They regulate growth
in to directional stimuli. role of indoleacetic acid in controlling tropisms in flowering
The auxin causes The auxin causes increased
decreased growth in growth in the lower side
the lower side of the of the shoot causing
root causing upwards curvature
downwards curvature (negative gravitropism).
(positive gravitropism).…read more

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The structure of a myelinated motor
Myelinated motor neurone
4…read more

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The of a resting potential in terms of differential permeability,
electrochemical gradients and the of sodium
Distribution of ions at resting potential
When there is no nerve impulse the membrane potential of an axon
is called `resting potential'. The inside of the axon is -70Mv. Due to
this difference in charge between the inside and outside of the
axon we say that it is polarised.…read more

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The all-or-nothing
The action potential
The term `action' potential and
`resting' potential can be misleading
because the movement of sodium ions
inwards during the action potential is
due to diffusion and resting potential is
maintained by active transport.…read more

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The nature and of the refractory period in producing impulses.…read more

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Factors affecting the of myelination axon diameter;
The of an action potential along and axons, resulting in nerve
o…read more

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The detailed structure of a and of a neuromuscular
Candidates should be able to explain
· unidirectionality
· temporal and spatial summation inhibition.…read more



This set of notes covers the transmission of nervous implulses and sums up information in useful flow diagrams, images showing the sequence of events, and concise text. One page unfortunately  seems to have suffered in the uploading process but nevertheless this is a very good resource to use as a basis for revision.



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