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Classification is the organisation of living organisms into groups.
Species are a group of similar organisms that can breed together to
produce fertile offspring. The system devised for naming species is a
binomial system as the organisms are identified by two names. These
names are based on Greek or Latin names. The first name tells us the
genus of the organism, the second name is the species name.
Grouping species can be done in two main ways
Artificial classification which divides organisms according to their
Natural classification is based on evolutionary/phylogentic
relationships. This means that common ancestors are taken into
A hierarchy is when a large group of organisms are divided into smaller
groups with no over laps. Groups are based on similarities in the
following areas morphology (appearance), anatomy, physiology,
biochemistry (enzymes), DNA & amino acid,
King Kingdom Animalia
Philip Phylum Chordata
Came Class Mammalia
Over Order Primates
From Family Hominidae
Greece / Genus Homo
Spain Species sapiens
Binomial name for humans is Homo sapiens.
Analogous features have the same function but evolved differently.
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Homologous features have the same function and are evolved from a
A difficulty in defining species arises when we take into account these
1. For extinct organisms there is no information on their reproduction &
structural information is limited.
2. Reproductive behaviour may not be easily observable.
3. Some species do not reproduce sexually.
4. Isolated individuals of a species may evolve into different species.…read more