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Government and Politics ­ Civil Service Research
The term civil service has two distinct meanings:

A branch of governmental service in which individuals are employed on the basis of
professional merit as proven by competitive examinations.
The body of employees in any government agency other than the military.

A civil…

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In general use, the term civil servant in the United Kingdom does not include all public sector
employees although there is no fixed legal definition, the term is usually defined as "a
servant of the Crown working in a civil capacity who is not the holder of a political (or…

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administration of Tony Blair, the influence of two Downing Street special advisers, Jonathan
Powell and Alastair Campbell, both of whom were given formal power over Downing Street
civil servants, provoked widespread criticism.

Grading schemes
The grading system used in the civil service has changed many times, and the current

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recruitment process at the higher levels of government, the abolition of Ministerial
responsibility in relation to officials, and its replacement by personal responsibility for
construction and implementation of policy.

Are quangos sufficiently accountable? Are there some functions or powers that ought only
to be held by those democratically elected?


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* Quangos are costly there may be duplication of functions they constitute an extra,
unnecessary level of government.


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