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Chapter 9 (b)
Civil liberties…read more

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Chapter 9 (b)
Civil liberties
Key terms
· Civil liberties: the fundamental freedoms enjoyed by
citizens in a liberal democracy, properly limited only by those
laws established for the common good
· Rights: a legal or moral entitlement to have something or
behave in a particular way
· Positive rights: those rights explicitly assigned to citizens,
often part of a codified constitution
· Negative rights: those liberties that are not explicitly set
out, but exist in the absence of any law forbidding
individuals from exercising them…read more

Slide 3

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Chapter 9 (b)
Civil liberties
What civil liberties are protected in
the UK?
· The right to life · The right of protest
· Freedom of expression · Freedom from
· Freedom of religion arbitrary arrest
and conscience · Freedom from torture
· Freedom of movement · Right to fair trial
· Freedom of association · Political rights, e.g.
the right to vote
· Property rights…read more

Slide 4

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Chapter 9 (b)
Civil liberties
Where are civil liberties set out in the
· The UK has an uncodified constitution and so it is harder
than in other countries to determine precisely where civil
liberties are set out
· Generally speaking UK citizens are free to do anything that
is not prohibited by statute and is therefore a system
dominated by negative rights rather than positive rights…read more

Slide 5

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Chapter 9 (b)
Civil liberties
The protection of rights
According to the nineteenth-century constitutional lawyer A.V.
Dicey, such rights in the UK are protected:
· through the actions of a sovereign, independent and robust
parliament, that will act quickly to address perceived
· by the fact that public opinion will not stand for
encroachment on long-standing freedoms
· through the laying down of judge-made case law -- often
called common law or ordinary law…read more

Slide 6

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Chapter 9 (b)
Civil liberties
The UK's new `rights culture'
The lack of a clear and authoritative summary of the rights
available to UK citizens prompted the Labour government
elected in 1997 to bring three pieces of legislation:
· the Human Rights Act (HRA, 1998)
· the Freedom of Information Act (FOI, 2000)
· the Data Protection Act (DPA, 1998)…read more

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Thank you so much!

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