Citizenship all key terms

Agencies - Organisations and bodies in that are part of a major institution, the UN of EU


Aggravating Circumstances - Something that makes a crime more serious


Anarchy - A system where no form of government operates, when there is total breakdown of society


Autumn Statement - An annual statement made by the Chancellor of the Exchequer to the House of Commons about the spending plans of the government


Backbenchers - Members of the House of Commons who are not government ministers or opposition spokespersons. They sit behind the front row of seats in the Chamber, hence the name


Barristers - Graduates who become specialist in a narrow aspect of law and are employed by solicitors on behalf of their clients to represent them in the higher courts


Bicameral - The name given to a parliament made up of two chambers


Boycott - Refusing to buy goods or use a service to achieve a desired political outcome (the term comes from Captain Boycott whose tenants refused to pay their rent)


British Values - The values associated with living in Britain


Budget - An annual statement made by the Chancellor of the Exchequer to the House of Commons about the taxation policy for the forthcoming year


By-election - An election held in seat after the retirement or death of a sitting member


Census - A governmental survey taken every 10 years to gather information about the life in the UK


Central Government - term used to describe the government of the UK


Chief Constable - The chief police officer with each regional police force responsible for day-to-day management of police resources to fight crime


Citizens Advice - Community-based charity that provides help and advice, including free legal advice throughout the UK


Citizenship - A legal status given to members of the state, indicating their membership of the state


Civil Law - The type of law that deals with disputes between individuals where damages are awarded


Civil Service - Employees of the state who administer our public policy


Closed party list system - The electoral system used in England, Scotland and Wales to elect MEPs


Closed Regional list system - A proportional voting system used in the UK for European Parliamentary elections


Command equality - A national economy where all elements of the economic system are controlled by the government


Common Law - Law based on judges' ruling in court


Commonwealth Charter - A document that lays down the principles associated with the commonwealth membership


Competence - Relates to the areas of policy delegated by countries to the EU


Conservatism - An 18th century political ideology based upon the traditional belief in the family and the church and nationalism. It has a paternalistic approach to community affairs, this ideology has evolved to encompass the New Right to Christian Democrats


Constituencies - A named geographical area consisting on average of about 65,000 voters which elects a single MP to the UK Parliament


Core executive - The most important policy makers within the executive around the Prime Minister


Council of Europe - Founded in 1949 and is an intergovernmental body which aims are to promote human rights, democracy and rule of law within its 47 member states, this body established the European Convention on Human Rights


Council of the European Union - Meetings of ministers from states in the EU


Councillors - Citizens who are elected to serve on local councils


Criminal Law - The type of law where individuals are charged by the state with an offence and if they are found guilty, they are punished by the state


Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) - An independent governmental body that determines whether charges should be brought, they prosecute charges on behalf of their state


Custodial - A sentence that involves imprisonment


Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen 1789 - Following the French Revolution, the new National Assembly declared that: 'the ignorance, neglect, or contempt of the rights of man are the sole cause of public calamities and of corrupt governments, have determined to set forth in a solemn declaration the natural, unalienable, and sacred rights of man'


Democracy - A political system based upon the concept of giving the people the power to decide through an electoral system where electors can choose their party of group


Department select committees - Committees of the House of Commons made up of MPs who monitor the work of the government and publish reports on the work of the department


Deterrence - Use of sentencing to prevent the offender committing the offence


Devolution - The transfer of power from a greater to lesser body


Devolved and reserved powers - Devolved powers are transferred by the UK to the devolved governments. Reserved powers are those which are still held by the UK government


Devolved government - name given to the bodies created under the policy of devolution e.g. the Scottish Parliament


Dictatorship - Ruled by one person or a group, this group or person is all-powerful, often associated with a military takeover of a state


Direct democracy - A system of government in where all citizens take part in the decision-making. A modern form of democracy is the use of referendums


Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) - The title given to the head of the CPS


Discrimination - Treating a group of people unfairly


E-media - All forms of media that are related to the internet (e stands for electronic)


Employers' Association - Industry or regionally based bodies in that seek to represent the interests of groups and employers


Equality Act 2010 - 116 pieces of information brought together to protect individuals from their unfair treatment and promote an equal and fair society


Euro - The common currency used by the Eurozone (18 members of the EU)


European Arrest Warrant - A system within the European Union that allows a police force in one countries to ask a police force in another to arrest someone


European Commission - Appointed officials of the member countries of the EU who draft policy initiatives and the direct workings of the EU


European Convention on Human Rights - A Convention that lays down basic rights, it is based on the UNDHR and is overseen by the Council of Europe


European Council - Meetings of the heads of governments of EU member states


European Court of Human Rights - Court of Human Rights that sits in Strasbourg and rules on the European Convention of Human Rights (Not to be confused with the European Court of Justice which is under the court of the European Union)


European Parliament - The directly elected Parliament of the European Union


Executive - An element of government made up of government ministers, advisers and senior civil servants who determine the policy of government


Fairness - Treating People more equally according to the circumstances


Federalist - A person that supports the EU integration leading to a United States of Europe


First past the post - An election system based upon the person with the highest number of votes cast being elected


Freedom - The ability to act or think as one thinks


Frontbenchers - Government ministers or shadow ministers who sit on the front row of seats in the House of Commons chamber, facing each other across the table


General Election - An election where the entire UK Parliament is elected. Elections are held after a fixed five-year period after the previous election


Geneva Conventions - The most important convention on how civilians should be treated during a time of war


Global Identity - some aspects of identity are now global in nature


Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - The value of all the goods and services created in the country, normally measured annually


Gross National Income (GNI) - GDP minus income earned by non-residents plus income received from non-residents


Group Identity - Identities associated with a group


Hague Convention - Deals with rules governing the conduct of war


Hard Power - The ability to use military or economic power to achieve one's aims


House of Commons - The first chamber of the Parliament made up of 650 elected members. The government is formed based on the composition of this chamber. It is a legislative chamber that also holds the government to account


House of Lords - The second house in the chamber. Since 1911, it has far less importance than the House of Commons. Its main purpose is a revising chamber, made up of non-elected members


Human Right - A fundamental right to every person is entitled to have, to be and to do


Human Rights ACT (HRA) - Passed in 1998 and came into force in 2000, this Act brought together of numerous pieces of human rights legislation and enabled UK citizens easier to the European Court of Human Rights


Humanitarian Aid - Non-military aid given to countries with people in need, e.g. food, shelter and medical help


Identity - The characteristics that determine who a person is


Individual Liberty - In modern democracy, people have the freedoms to make their own choices and decisions


Inflation - The rate at which prices and wages increase on an annual basis


International Criminal Court - Set up to try persons indicated for crimes against humanity or war crimes, 120 nations have agreed to work with this court


International Humanitarian Law (IHL) - IHL is a body of law associated with international disputes and the conduct of war and the people affected by law


Judiciary - The part of the UK system of governance that is responsible for its legal system that consists of all the judges in its court of law


Jury Service - Citizens are required to serve on juries as a civic service, twelve people are selected at random from the register of voters


Justice - Behaviour of treatment that is morally right and fair


Legal Executives - Legally qualified specialists employed mainly by solicitors


Legislation - Or statute law, laws passed by parliament


Legislature - A body normally elected that decides upon laws that apply to a state, in the UK, Parliament is the legislature and in the USA, Congress is the legislature


Liberal democracy - A system of government based upon representative democracy and linked to freedoms and right for citizens


Liberalism - A political philosophy dating from the 18th century, based on individual liberty, freedom of worship and free trade. It evolved into social liberalism, with a concern for welfare right. It encompasses Liberal parties to Free Democrats to Radical Parties


Local Election - Elections held for the councillors to local councils, held on a fixed date in May after the fixed term of office has expired


Lord Chief Justice - The senior Judge in the UK and head of the judiciary


Lord Speaker - The Speaker of the House of Lords


Lords Spiritual - The 26 bishops of the Church of England who are members of the House of Lords


Magistrates - Part-time community volunteers who after training determine verdicts and sentences in a local Magistrates' courts, they sit on a bench of three and agree their decisions


Magna Carta - Known as the Great Charter, singed in 1215, it established the rights and powers of the King and the people of England


Manifesto - A document produced by the political party at the time of the of an election outlining the policies it would like to introduce


Market economy - A national economy where most of the economy is run by the private sector and the state owns and runs limited elements


Mass Media - The means of communicating to a large number of people at the same time; these include television, newspapers and the internet


Mediation - A process of involving outsiders in a dialogue to try to resolve a dispute between two parties


Member of Parliament (MP) - A citizen elected to parliament who serves as an MP, usually as a member of a political party


Member of the European Parliament (MEP) - an elected citizen to the Parliament of European Union, normally representing a political party


Metropolitan Police - The title that is given to the police force responsible in the London area


Mitigating Circumstances - Something that makes the offender's culpability less serious


Mixed economy - A national economy that has elements runs by the state and others run by the private sector


Multi-party system - A political system where several parties are vying for power


Multicultural Society - A society that comprises of cultural and religious backgrounds


Multiple Identity - That a person can assume different identities at different times and in different situations


NACRO - a body that seeks to represent the view of offenders


National Identity - An identity associated with a specific country


Nationalised - Where the state owns and runs a part of the economy


Nature Vs Nurture - A debate whether a persons personality and identity are most affected by their biological background


Neighbourhood Watch - A voluntary scheme in which people are given a set area with the police to help reduce crime


New Media - All forms of non-traditional media


New Right - A view of conservatism linked to Ronald Reagan in the USA and Margaret Thatcher in the 1980s, that limiting the impact on business and lowering taxation and what services the state provided, was the best means of increasing national wealth and allowed for personal empowerment and increased social mobility


Non-custodial - a criminal sentence that doesn't involve imprisonment


Non-democratic - A system of government that lacks some or all of the elements that make up some of a democratic political system


Non-Departmental Governmental Bodies (NDPBs) - Formerly Quangos


Non-governmental Organisation (NGO) - NGOs can be national or international, many of these charities provide services to help those in need, many work with governmental agencies and can receive funds from the government


Ofcom - The Office of communications is a governmental regulator of the media industry


Office of National Statistics (ONS) - A governmental body that provides background data


One-party State - A state where only one political party exists and runs a country, often associated with communism e.g. North Korea


Petition of Rights 1628 - A petition to King Charles 1 demanding a return in taxation for human rights


PMQs - 30 minutes on each Wednesday in which the Prime Minister faces questions from MPs in the chamber of the House of Commons. Six questions are allocated to the Leader of the Opposition


Police and community support officers - Local employed uniformed staff which help the police in local communities, they do not have police powers


Police and Crime Commissioners - Directly elected officials who are responsible for running the regional police force outside London


Pressure Groups - Organised bodies of citizens who share the same interest in an issue and through a variety of actions promote their cause


Principles - A basic truth of idea that underpins the beliefs associated with a given society


Private Member's Bill - A bill, a draft for the law that is proposed by a MP. A lottery is held each year and if an MP comes out toward the top, they stand a good chance of their bill becoming law


Proportional - A system of voting whereby the number of people elected related to the number percentage of votes cast


Quangos - Quasi Autonomous NGOs. These bodies which works with the government, sometimes carrying out services on behalf of government and funded from government, but partially independent from government. Government uses the term NDPBs to describe them, as the word Quango is associated with negative media coverage of these bodies


Queens Council - Barristers May apply to become QCs, or KCs if there is a king on the throne, this is recognition of their profession and that they have become experts in their own field


Question Time - The time allocated each weak in parliament where ministers face Questions from the Members of Parliament and are held to account for their actions


Real government spending - The change in the amount of government spends after taking in account of inflation


Recorded Crime - Crimes that are reported to the police and recorded


Referendum - A vote on a single issue, where views of the government or other bodies wish to seek the views of electors of an issue, e.g. Brexit referendum


Rehabilitation - An aim of sentencing seeking to change the behaviour of the offender


Reparations - Where an offender has to pay towards the damage they have caused


Representative democracy - A system of government where citizens are elected to represent other in an assembly, e.g. in the UK, a MP or councillor


Responsibility - The state or fact of having to do something


Right - A moral of legal entitlement to have or do something


Salisbury convention - A post-war convention whereby the House of Lords does not vote down a proposal from the Commons if it was the election manifesto of the government


Sanctions - Measures taken by a state to others achieve a change in policy or action


Secondary Action - When a worker not directly involved in a trade dispute takes action to support others


Security Council - The major decision making body of the United Nations, made up of 5 permanent and 10 elected member countries, UK is a permanent member country


Single transferable vote (STV) - A proportional voting system used in parts of the UK


Social Media - The ways in which people interact with each other on the internet, such as Twitter and Facebook


Socialism - A political ideology dating mainly for the 19th century, based upon the common ownership of the economy, equality and opportunity. It encompasses parties from Communism to Social Democrats


Soft power - The ability to influence others through your culture, political and foreign policy values


Solicitors - Mainly Graduates who cover a range of legal work of both civil and criminal and have to be formally qualified


Sovereignty - The power and authority that a country has to make decisions and its relations with others


Special Advisor - Specialist and political advisers to ministers and opposition spokes-persons, can have temporary civil service status, paid for by the taxpayer


Special Constables - Volunteers who help the police on a part time basis in their local community, they do not have police powers but they wear a police uniform and assist the police in their community


Strike - The withdrawal of one's labour, refusing to work


Supplementary vote - A voting system where voter have a second vote which is used in the election process if no candidate gets 50% of the first-choice votes


Supreme Court - Is the final court of appeal in the UK for civil cases, and for criminal cases in England, Northern Ireland and Wales, it hears cases of constitutional importance affecting the whole population


The Electoral Commission - A government-established body that monitors and oversees all UK elections and referendums


The Equality and Human Rights Commission - An independent statutory body established to help eliminate discrimination, reduce inequality and Protect Human Rights


The Howard League for Penal Reform - A long-established pressure group that advocates prison reforms


The Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO) - Set up to handle complaints and conduct investigations into standard and compliance


The monarchy - A system of hereditary power which is passed down a family line. In the UK, we have constitutional monarchy where the head is the monarch but most of their powers have been transferred to the government


The Prime Minister - The Prime Minister is the head of government in the UK, the monarch is the head of state. In the USA, the President is holds both posts. The Prime Minister is normally the head of the biggest party in the House of Commons and is an MP, he or she is appointed by the monarch after a General Election, they have the title of First Lord of the Treasury


The Rule of Law - A basic principle of a democratic society that the law applies equally to everyone


The Speaker - A Member of Parliament elected by the other members of the House of Commons and manage the business of the House


Theocracy - Where religious leaders run the state e.g. Iran


Tiers - another term for level of government


Tolerance - A concept in modern society which people show understanding of others with different views and opinions


Trade Union Congress (TUC) - A national body representing most trade unions in the UK


Trade Unions - A legally recognised employment-based group of employees who seek to represent workers in regard to the conditions of employment e.g. wages.

E.g., the RMT (The National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers) who represent those workings on the London Underground


Traditional Media - Newsprint, radio, television and cinema


Transnational groupings - A political grouping the European Parliament made up of MEPs from several countries


Two-party system - A political system that is dominated by two political parties, each of which at some time may form a government


Ultra Vires - Acting beyond your legal power or authority


United Nations Charter - A document which lays down the aims of the United Nations


Universal Declaration of Human Rights - An international Law which sets out the universal human rights under the UN


US Declaration of Independence 1789 - A declaration related to the founding of the USA following of independence from Britain. The Declaration protects freedom of speech and religion and the right to keep and bear arms, the freedom of assembly and to petition


Values - Standards of behaviour accepted by a society


Veto - To be able to vote down any decision


Volunteering - Giving your time to help others without pay


Voter apathy - A lack of interest by citizens in the electoral and political process


Voter Turnout - The number of voters who actually vote, against the number of people who could vote, expressed as a percentage


Whips - Members of Parliament appointed by their party leader to organise their MPs, ensuring their attendance and their vote

  • Created by: j.king14
  • Created on: 28-06-18 08:09
Word Document 90.51 Kb





Miss Rahman


excellent keywords list. Thank you






Fantastic resource. I'm sure this must have been a lot of effort.