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Page 1

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Q1. (a) Explain why both the heart and arteries are described as organs.

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(1)




The table shows changes in the volume of blood in the left ventricle over a period of one
second.

Time / s Volume of blood as
percentage of maximum
0 70
0.1 100
0.2…

Page 2

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(d) (i) Between which times are the muscles in the wall of the left atrium contracting?

Give the reason for your answer.

Times ..................................................................................................

Reason ................................................................................................

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(1)




(ii) Between which times are the semilunar valves in the arteries open? Give the
reason for your answer.

Times ..................................................................................................

Reason ................................................................................................…

Page 3

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(b) The elastin fibres in the wall of the artery help to smooth out the flow of blood. What
happens to these fibres as the pressure of the blood in the artery changes?

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(c) Give one way in which the structure…

Page 4

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(i) Describe how the mean maximum arterial blood pressure changes over the
period shown in the graph.

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(1)




(ii) In each cardiac cycle, the arterial pressure has a maximum value. Explain the
link between this maximum value and the events of the cardiac cycle.

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(1)




(iii)…

Page 5

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substance gives an indication of the size of its molecules. The table shows the
relative permeability of the wall of a capillary to different molecules.

Substance Relative molecular Relative permeability
mass of capillary wall
Water 18 1.00
Urea 60 0.96
Glucose 180 0.60
Haemoglobin 68 000 0.01
Albumin (plasma protein)…

Page 6

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Q4. The table shows the relative thickness of layers in the walls of an artery and a vein.

Layer in wall Thickness / µm
Artery Vein
Endothelium 20 20
Smooth muscle 490 240
Elastic tissue 370 240
Connective tissue 120 120


(a) Explain why a vein may be described as…

Page 7

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(2)




(c) Explain how the elastic tissue in the wall helps to even out the pressure of blood
flowing through the artery.

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(2)
(Total 6 marks)




Q5. The diagram shows some of the large blood vessels in a mammal.




(a) Add arrows to the diagram to…

Page 8

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(b) (i) to E is the hepatic portal vein?
Which of blood vessels A




(1)




(ii) to E contains blood at the lowest pressure?
Which of blood vessels A




(1)




(c) wo differences between the structure of vessel C
Complete the table to show t and
the structure of vessel…

Page 9

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(2)
(Total 9 marks)




Q6. The diagram shows tissue fluid and cells surrounding a capillary.




(a) Name fluid F.

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(1)




(b) Give one way in which fluid F
is different from tissue fluid.

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(1)




(c) (i) The blood pressure is high at the start of…

Page 10

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(1)




(ii) The blood pressure decreases along the length of the capillary. What causes
this decrease in pressure?

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(1)




(d) . This
In children, some diets may result in a low concentration of protein in fluid F
can cause the accumulation of tissue fluid. Explain the link…

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