Circulatory system AQA AS Biology EXAM QUESTIONS

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Q1. (a) Explain why both the heart and arteries are described as organs.
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(1)
The table shows changes in the volume of blood in the left ventricle over a period of one
second.
Time / s Volume of blood as
percentage of maximum
0 70
0.1 100
0.2 70
0.3 30
0.4 0
0.5 35
0.6 60
0.7 70
0.8 70
0.9 100
1.0 70
Use information in the table to answer the following questions.
(b) What is the approximate length of one cardiac cycle?
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(1)
(c)
At what time ight ventricle? Explain your answer.
is there least blood in the r
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Between which times are the muscles in the wall of the left atrium contracting?
Give the reason for your answer.
Times ..................................................................................................
Reason ................................................................................................
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(1)
(ii) Between which times are the semilunar valves in the arteries open? Give the
reason for your answer.
Times ..................................................................................................
Reason ................................................................................................
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(1)
(e) The maximum volume of blood in the left ventricle is 45 cm . Calculate the volume of 3
blood in the left ventricle at 0.5 s. Show your working.
Volume of blood = .................................................…read more

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The elastin fibres in the wall of the artery help to smooth out the flow of blood. What
happens to these fibres as the pressure of the blood in the artery changes?
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(2)
(c) Give one way in which the structure of the wall of an artery is similar to the structure
of the wall of a capillary.
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(Total 5 marks)
Q3. (a) The graph shows hourly blood pressure recordings from a group of 65 people.…read more

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Describe how the mean maximum arterial blood pressure changes over the
period shown in the graph.
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(1)
(ii) In each cardiac cycle, the arterial pressure has a maximum value. Explain the
link between this maximum value and the events of the cardiac cycle.
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(1)
(iii) The recordings shown in this graph were taken from an artery. Describe t wo
ways in which you would expect blood pressure in a vein to differ from that in
an artery.
1 .........................................................................................................
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The table shows the
relative permeability of the wall of a capillary to different molecules.
Substance Relative molecular Relative permeability
mass of capillary wall
Water 18 1.00
Urea 60 0.96
Glucose 180 0.60
Haemoglobin 68 000 0.01
Albumin (plasma protein) 69 000 0
Globulin (plasma protein) 140 000 0
(i) Describe the relationship between molecule size and the permeability of the
capillary wall.
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Q4. The table shows the relative thickness of layers in the walls of an artery and a vein.
Layer in wall Thickness / µm
Artery Vein
Endothelium 20 20
Smooth muscle 490 240
Elastic tissue 370 240
Connective tissue 120 120
(a) Explain why a vein may be described as an organ.
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(b) (i) Use information from the table to suggest the thickness of a capillary wall.
Give the reason for your answer.
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Explain how the elastic tissue in the wall helps to even out the pressure of blood
flowing through the artery.
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(2)
(Total 6 marks)
Q5. The diagram shows some of the large blood vessels in a mammal.
(a) Add arrows to the diagram to show the direction of blood flow in each of the blood
vessels A to E.…read more

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E is the hepatic portal vein?
Which of blood vessels A
(1)
(ii) to E contains blood at the lowest pressure?
Which of blood vessels A
(1)
(c) wo differences between the structure of vessel C
Complete the table to show t and
the structure of vessel E.
Structural feature Vessel C Vessel E
(2)
(d) Blood vessel B contains smooth muscle in its walls. Explain how this muscle may
reduce the blood flow to the small intestine.
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Total 9 marks)
Q6. The diagram shows tissue fluid and cells surrounding a capillary.
(a) Name fluid F.
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(1)
(b) Give one way in which fluid F
is different from tissue fluid.
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(c) (i) The blood pressure is high at the start of the capillary. Explain how the left
ventricle causes the blood to be at high pressure.
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The blood pressure decreases along the length of the capillary. What causes
this decrease in pressure?
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(1)
(d) . This
In children, some diets may result in a low concentration of protein in fluid F
can cause the accumulation of tissue fluid. Explain the link between a low
and the accumulation of tissue fluid.
concentration of protein in fluid F
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(3)
(Total 7 marks)
Q7.…read more

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