CHILDBRITH, FAMILY SIZE & MORTALITY RATES

notes on childbirth, family size and mortality rates

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  • Created on: 17-05-11 20:18
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CHILDBRITH, FAMILY SIZE & MORTALITY RATES
CHILDBEARING & FAMILY SIZE
In the 1870's ­ women have on average six children ­ in 1960s ­ average was 2.7 ­ today
the average is 1.6
In the 1970's ­ most women had their first child in their mid twenties but today it is near to 30
& there is also an increasing number of children who are born to unmarried couples
WHY ARE WOMEN HAVING FEWER CHILDREN?
1) Because of the decline in infant mortality rate (the number of deaths in a population of
infants under one year of age per thousand births) so more children survive into
adulthood.
2) The introduction of reliable contraception in the 1960's ­ e.g. the pill
3) The increased expense of children
4) Women are now having children later which means they are leaving less time to have
more children
5) Many women are now prioritising careers
WHY ARE MORE CHILDREN BORN OUTSIDE OF MARRIAGE?
1) Because of the increase in people cohabiting
2) There is less stigma towards couples who have children outside marriage
3) Secularisation ­ means people are less influenced by religion and are more lilry to
have sex outside of marriage
MOTALITY RATES
Nowadays people are living longer ­ the average life expectancy for a women is 80 & for men
it is 75 ­ this has consequences for the elderly & society ­ one issue is financial as more
money is needed for pensions and health care, another issue is care for the elderly ­
however an ageing population can be seen as a benefit rather than a problem because it
means that employers are encouraged to employ people beyond the age of retirement.
WHY ARE PEOPLE LIVING LONGER?
1) Because of better medical care & improved medical knowledge
2) Because of the welfare state which provides support for the elderly in the form on
pensions & help with fuel & transport
3) There is improved knowledge about diet & exercise
4) There is improved hygiene, cleaner water, refrigerated food & effective sewage
disposal
5) Jobs are less physical
6) Women are having fewer children & more births take place in hospitals

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Unlikely to die in war ­ last world war ended in 1946
8) We are now protected by many hazards of the past ­ we have a nanny state ­ e.g.
smoking ban.…read more

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