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Developing Speaking

When analysing a transcript, you should consider how the child has learnt to
use:
Phonetics ­ i.e. do they mispronounce certain words and, if so, how?
Phonology ­ do they use prosodic features such as pitch, loudness, speech and
intonation to convey meaning?
Semantics ­ what semantic fields…

Page 2

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o Sometimes they consist of two items expressed as one unit, e.g.
`allgone', which is known as a holophrase.
o Mainly naming immediate environment.
o Semantic fields include food, the body, clothes, family and toys.

18 ­ 24 months ­
Phonology ­ use of stress for emphasis ­ `my car'…

Page 3

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o Continuing stabilisation and development of phonemic and prosodic
aspects of speech, though some consonants (such as l, r, th) still not
acquired, especially in clusters.
Syntax/morphology
o Sentences expand to four or more elements
o More words from grammatical category ­ pronouns, determiners, etc.
o Simple sentences complete
o…

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o Auxiliary verbs appear in affirmative sentences, as well as negative
ones
o The verb `to be' appears more frequently
o Sentences are generally more complex and complete
o E.g. `I gave him some so he won't cry'
Forming Questions
Stage 1 ­ The child adds a `Wh` form to…

Page 5

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o These two consonant sounds have double symbols to represent the
fact that each one is a plosive followed by a fricative.
Nasals (m(man), n(man) and (sing))
o These phonemes are produced in a particular manner: the airstream
comes out through the nose rather than the mouth.
o They differ…

Page 6

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Reduplication ­ This refers to the repetition of a whole syllable, as in
`choochoo.' This has become a recognised feature of `babytalk.'

Theories of Language Acquisition

Jerome Bruner's LASS theory (Language Acquisition Support System)
Adults provide opportunities for a child to acquire their mothertongue by providing
ritualised scenarios ­ the…

Page 7

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Piaget linked linguistic development with an understanding of the concepts
surrounding the word's meanings, suggesting that children cannot be taught before
they are ready:
Stage Age (years) Key elements

Sensor/motor Up to 2 The child experiences the physical world through the
sense and begins classifying the things in it lexical…

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