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Marco Ball-Albarran

Child Language ­ Learning to talk
Once argued to be a biologically determined process alongside physical and mental
Cannot be true because children deprived of human contact in extreme human isolation
do not acquire language.
If language were innate and liked only to biological factors, even after…

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Marco Ball-Albarran

Age range Description of stage Developmental Phenomena
0-2 years Sensorimotor- Baby explores through 5 Object Permanence ­ The awareness that an
senses. Initially grasping, sucking reflexes. object exists even though not visible. Shake a
Grabbing objects and exploring it with rattle and gain attention of 3month old then…

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Marco Ball-Albarran

Page 4

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Marco Ball-Albarran

Primitive speech Birth -2 years : During this stage, the child begins to learn to speak, mainly
stage imitating words & naming objects, or responding emotionally (crying) or
socially (laughing)
Naive 2-4 years :The child in this stage is beginning to realise that words are
psychological symbols for…

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Marco Ball-Albarran

Basic principles of all the above theories
They all highlight a particular element of child language acquisition, but none can provide a
full explanation on their own.
Their basic principles are that:

To acquire language, children must be part of a social and linguistic community
Physical development plays…

Page 6

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Marco Ball-Albarran

In order to use language structures (like the comparative for example: This toy is
better than that toy), children must be able to intellectually conceptualise the world
around them ­ language acquisition is therefore linked to intellectual development
Through imitation children acquire new vocab and may be introduced…

Page 7

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Marco Ball-Albarran

Personal Language is used to express a personal "Me like that" as the
preference and identity of the speaker. child looks at a toy in a
Sometimes known as the `Here I am!' shop.
function by announcing oneself to the "No" because the child
world wants to stay…

Page 8

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Marco Ball-Albarran

For politeness, Brown and Levinson's face can be applied (communicative
Positive- individual desires social approval and being included
Negative- individual asserts need to be independent and make own decisions.
For pragmatics, Catherine Garvey found that in play, children adopt roles and
identities, acting out storylines and inventing…

Page 9

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Marco Ball-Albarran

After birth (vegetative)
Usual responses summarised by David Crystal:

Biological noises ­ Universal across all languages as a
survival attention instinct
Cooing and laughing ­ short vowel like sounds.
Beginning to develop control over vocal muscles
Vocal play ­ More varied but less controlled
Babbling ­ Produces phonemes,…

Page 10

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Marco Ball-Albarran

At 4 months they develop a throaty chuckle

Stage 3 (20 weeks-30 weeks vocal play/verbal scribbling)
Steadier and longer sounds
Experimentation to push what they can do (pitch, volume, sounds)
Individual differences- some days use uvular sounds
(rolling Rs, inner mouth), but others use labial sounds (lips)




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This is truly the best revision documentation I have seen on this topic, thank you!

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