First 319 words of the document:
Child Directed Speech -
These modifications take place during adult-child interactions or Child Directed Speech (CDS). They
are important to know, some of them are -to some extent useful during the process of language
development but they also can inhibit the child language acquisition. These modifications can also
be found under the characteristics of CDS. In addition, they all operate under assumed roles: identify
conversational turns, mapping ideas onto language or identifying linguistic units. Interestingly, most
of these modifications carry out more than one role. All of the terms used in this document are
highlighted in Child Language by Jean Stilwell Peccei.
The table below summarises each modification, its definition and role(s).
Adult's Modification What is it? Role (s)
EXPANSION Recasting the child's utterance Identifying conversational
into the phonologically or turns.
grammatically "correct" form. Mapping language into ideas
CORRECTION FOR TRUTH Refers to providing the correct Mapping ideas into language
word when a child has Identifying linguistic units
MISLABELED an object or
FRAMING Refers to the REPEATED use of Mapping ideas into language
the SAME WORD several Identifying linguistic units
syntactic contexts. E.g. here's a
ball. It's a big ball. Throw me
EXPATIATIONS Expansions with EXTRA info Identifying Linguistic units
added to the child's comment.
E.g. Child: mummy sock
Adult: Is that mummy's sock?
Yes, it's too big for you.
RECASTING Is where the adult responds Mapping ideas into language
NATURALLY to the child and Identifying linguistic units
uses a CORRECT form of
something the child said
CORRECTION It's a DELIBRATE attempt by an
adult to CHANGE the child's use