Revision notes for Edexcel A2 Psychology (Unit 3 - Section B)

Includes notes on:

  • Observations
  • Case studies
  • Cross-cultural research
  • Longitudinal studies
  • Bowlby's theory of attachment
  • Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
  • Deprivation
  • Privation
  • Autism and 2 explanations
  • Bowlby (1944)
  • Curtiss (1977)
  • Is daycare harmful for chidren?
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  • Created by: Anna Gray
  • Created on: 26-03-16 14:28
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Naturalistic Observations

Naturalistic observations are very useful in child psychology and they have been used to
observe play and language development. Because they are in a natural setting they show
natural behaviour which is what the researcher wants to see.

They aid psychologists understanding in `real' behaviour and help…

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However, they do lack validity because there may be demand characteristics and social
desirability meaning that they are less valid than naturalistic observations. Also, they are less
likely to involve informed consent, although consent for young children consent needs to
come from their parents.

Page 3

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Case Studies

Case studies allow data to be gathered that is in depth and detailed and they usually study
an individual or group of people who are connected in some way. Whoever is being studied
becomes the focus of the case study.

Case studies tend to be reliable because they…

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CrossCultural Research

Ainsworth is known for taking a crosscultural approach to studying child psychology. She
implemented the same procedure of experiments in different cultures and then drew
comparisons between the different places.

There is an issue with naturenurture when it comes to drawing conclusions from these
studies because if the…

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Longitudinal Studies

Longitudinal studies follow a particular group over a period of time. A test or observation is
repeated over the study which usually lasts a long time and allows all the data to be
gathered. For example, to study the effects of age a researcher might study a group…

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Bowlby's Theory of Attachment

Bowlby was a psychoanalyst who followed the ideas of Freud and believed that an infant
was strongly affected by the beginning of their life. By attachment, he meant a warm,
continuous, loving relationship with one person ­ attachment is a twoway emotional bond
where people depend…

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Things like separation, insecurity or fear would trigger the instinct in the child to go to the
attachment figure. This is supported by studies such as Lorenz and the geese and the work
of Harlow with the monkeys.

The Theory

Bowlby suggested that children deprived of their attachment figure would…

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Evaluating Bowlby's Theory of Attachment

Harlow's study of the monkeys demonstrated attachment and the importance of attachment
in relationships. The baby monkeys were removed from their mothers and offered two wire
mothers instead. One was covered in soft towel and the other provided food but was hard.
The monkey's preferred…

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The Work of Ainsworth

Ainsworth went to live in Uganda to study motherchild reactions. She proposed a link
between the responsiveness of the mother and the reactions of the child. Some children's
attachments were secure and comfortable while others were tense and full of conflict. She
also found that the…

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3) Ambivalent insecure ­ they stayed close to the mother rather than exploring, and
were very distressed when she left. They went for comfort on return and then
rejected the comforting. Again, about 15% fitted this attachment type.

In 1986 Main and Solomon developed a fourth attachment type: disorganised and…


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