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Atoms and subatomic particles
Structure of an atom
All matter in the universe is made up of atoms
A carbon atom:
A carbon atom consist of protons, neutrons and electrons
Atoms have no overall electrical charge
Protons have a positive charge
Neutrons have a neutral charge
Electrons have a negative charge
Protons have mass of 1
Neutrons have a mass of 1
1 (V ery small)
Electrons have a mass of 1870
The number of electrons in an atom is equal to the number of…read more

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All atoms have electrons
The electrons fit into shells
The first shell can have 2 electrons
The second and third can have 8
Sodium has 11 electrons so its shells will be filled as 2.8.1
It is draw like this:
Ionic bonding is where an atom gives an electron to another atom so both atoms can have
a full outer electron shell
E.G. Na + Cl
2.8.1 + 2.8.7
2.8 + 2.8.…read more

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E.G. Ca + Cl + 2.8.…read more

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The intermolecular forces hold ionic compounds together
A covalent bond forms when two non-metal atoms share a pair of electrons.
E.G. H2O
Metals are bonded by a sea of delocalised electrons
This is called metallic bond
The atoms in a metal are arranged in regular layers
The positive ion in metals are held together by electrons from the outer shell of each
metal atom.…read more

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The periodic table
The modern periodic table
The elements in the periodic table are arranged in order of their atomic number (proton
There are 118 elements on the periodic table
The elements are arranged in groups of the same number of electrons in their outer electron
shell (group 1 having 1 electrons in the outer shell and group 8 having 8 electrons in the outer
Elements in the same group have the same chemical properties
Each element on the periodic table has a…read more

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Group 1 the alkali metals
Group 1 consist of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium and francium
They all have one electron in their outer shell making them very reactive (they are stored
in oil to stop them reacting with oxygen)
Their reactivity increases as you move down the group (lithium being least reactive and
francium being most reactive)
They all have low densities for metals (lithium, sodium and potassium float on water)
They are very soft
When cut they have a shiny coat but the…read more

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Group 7 the halogens
The halogens are a group of non-metals
They have 7 electrons in their outer shell
They are the most reactive elements in the periodic table
They are all poisonous to humans
They all have coloured vapours
They have low melting and boiling points
They are very rare to find in their native state, they are usually found as compounds or
The more electrons, the denser the halogen gets and also it gets darker (astatine is the
heaviest and darkest halogen)…read more

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The transition metals are located in the centre of the periodic table
Most of them have similar properties
They are different from the other elements
The transition metals have a metallic structure
Their atoms are held together by metallic bonds
In a metallic bond the outer electron of each atom can move freely within the metal
(delocalised electrons)
Transition metals are good conductors of electricity and heat because the delocalised
electrons carry the electrical current or heat energy through the metal
They are also hard,…read more

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Fuels are important because they provide heating and run our cars and lorries
Crude oil is a dark smelly liquid
There are many different types of crude oil. e.g. crude oil from Venezuela contains long
chain hydrocarbons, it is dark and thick, it is called heavy crude oil. In other countries such as
Nigeria and Saudi Arabia they have crude oil which contains small chain hydrocarbons, it is
paler in colour and runny, it is called light crude oil.…read more


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