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Atoms and subatomic particles

Structure of an atom

All matter in the universe is made up of atoms
A carbon atom:

A carbon atom consist of protons, neutrons and electrons
Atoms have no overall electrical charge
Protons have a positive charge
Neutrons have a neutral charge
Electrons have a negative…

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All atoms have electrons
The electrons fit into shells
The first shell can have 2 electrons
The second and third can have 8
Sodium has 11 electrons so its shells will be filled as 2.8.1
It is draw like this:

Ionic bonding is where an atom gives an…

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E.G. Ca + Cl + 2.8.7
It is drawn like this:

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The intermolecular forces hold ionic compounds together

A covalent bond forms when two non-metal atoms share a pair of electrons.
E.G. H2O

Metals are bonded by a sea of delocalised electrons
This is called metallic bond

The atoms in a metal are arranged in regular layers
The positive ion in…

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The periodic table
The modern periodic table

The elements in the periodic table are arranged in order of their atomic number (proton
There are 118 elements on the periodic table
The elements are arranged in groups of the same number of electrons in their outer electron
shell (group 1…

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Group 1 the alkali metals

Group 1 consist of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium and francium
They all have one electron in their outer shell making them very reactive (they are stored
in oil to stop them reacting with oxygen)
Their reactivity increases as you move down the group (lithium…

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Group 7 the halogens

The halogens are a group of non-metals
They have 7 electrons in their outer shell
They are the most reactive elements in the periodic table
They are all poisonous to humans
They all have coloured vapours
They have low melting and boiling points
They are very…

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The transition metals are located in the centre of the periodic table
Most of them have similar properties
They are different from the other elements
The transition metals have a metallic structure
Their atoms are held together by metallic bonds
In a metallic bond the outer electron of each atom…

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Fuels are important because they provide heating and run our cars and lorries
Crude oil is a dark smelly liquid
There are many different types of crude oil. e.g. crude oil from Venezuela contains long
chain hydrocarbons, it is dark and thick, it is called heavy crude oil. In other…


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