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C3 ­ Development of the periodic table

Describe the law of octaves

The law of octaves stated that similar properties were repeated every eighth element

Explain why Newland's table was ignored in 1864

He placed some non-metals and metals in the same group
He had no gaps for currently undiscovered…

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As you go down the group, they get more reactive and the boiling/melting points

Describe the reaction between water and potassium

Describe the reaction between chlorine and lithium

Describe the properties of Group 7 non-metals, the halogens

They exist as diatomic molecules
They form covalent structures with non-metals but…

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Describe a titration

A set volume of alkali is measured using a pipette and added to a conical flask
Two drops of indicator are added to the conical flask
Acid is added to a burette
Acid is added to the conical flask drop wise, whilst swirling
... until the indicator…

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When water comes into contact with rocks, the Magnesium/Calcium salts may dissolve into
the water.

Explain how scum is formed

The dissolved Magnesium/Calcium salts in hard water react with soap to form stearate salts,
which are precipitates known as scum.

Explain how scale is formed

The dissolved Magnesium/Calcium salts in…

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Carbon water filters reduce the level of chlorine, pesticides and other organic
Ion-exchange ions remove ions from magnesium and calcium to aluminium and
Silver filter cartridges discourage the growth of bacteria in the filter

Describe how pure water can be produced

Distillation can be used where water is…

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solution. This method can be used for reactions of solids with water or for neutralisation

Evaluate the consequences of using fuel


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