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The Nitrogen Cycle
4. Denitrifying
bacteria convert N2 in air 1. Nitrogen-fixing
1. Fertilisers
nitrates and ammonium bacteria convert
compounds into N2 in the air into
Den ria
Ligh
bact
atmospheric nitrogen nitrates
itrif
tnin
e
ying
g
5. Nitrifying 6. Nitrates
bacteria taken in by
convert plants
Waste and ammonium
dead animals compounds
into nitrates Nitrates
in the soil
3. Decomposers break down 2. Plants are then
waste products and dead eaten by animals ­
animals and plants to form the nitrogen
AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS becomes PROTEIN…read more

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Farming Methods
There are basically two types of farming method; "intensive"
and "organic":
Intensive Organic
Cost
Produce
Fertilisers
Space
Labour done by...…read more

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What is glucose (food) used for?
1) Glucose (sugar) can be used to make long chains of starch...
Glucose Starch
molecules molecule
2) Glucose can be used to make cellulose for sugars...
Glucose Cellulose
molecules
3) Glucose can be combined with nitrates to make proteins (for growth)...
Glucose
molecules Proteins…read more

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Artificial Additives
Why do we use additives?
Some examples:
Additive Interesting information
Flavour enhancers Improve the taste
Colour enhancers Make the food look more appealing
Preservatives Makes the food last longer
Vitamins and minerals Can be used to replace those lost during cooking
Sweetener Used to reduce the amount of sugar needed
Antioxidant Used to stop fats or oils reacting with oxygen
Emulsifier Used to mix ingredients like oil and water…read more

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E numbers
If artificial additives are "approved" they are given an E
number:
E100­E199 (colours)
E200­E299 (preservatives)
E300­E399 (antioxidants, acidity regulators)
E400­E499 (thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers)
E500­E599 (acidity regulators, anti-caking agents)
E600­E699 (flavour enhancers)
E900­E999 (miscellaneous)
E1000­E1999 (additional chemicals)…read more

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