Chemistry Revision Notes on Atomic Structure, Bonding and Organic Chemistry Introduction

Chemistry Revision Notes on Atomic Structure, Bonding and Organic Chemistry Introduction.

Relative Mass. Relative Charge
Proton. 1. 1
Electron. 1/1836. -1
Neutron. 1. 0

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Chemistry Revision
An atom is the smallest part of an element.
It contains a nucleus which is made up of protons and neutrons
Electrons orbit the nucleus
Relative Relative
Mass Charge
Protons 1 1
Electrons 1 1
Neutrons 1/1879 0
If some electrons are added or removed, the atom becomes charged and is then an
The top number (23) is The Mass Number This represents the total of PROTONS and
The bottom number (11) is The Atomic Number ­ This represents the total number of
To work out how many Protons, Electrons and Neutrons there are in the atom:
Proton: This is found at the bottom of the element symbol (The Atomic Number)
Meaning 11 protons are in Sodium.
Electron: The number of electrons is the same as the number of protons.
This means that 11 electrons are in Sodium.
Neutron: We have to subtract The Atomic Number from The Relative Atomic Mass
Number. This means 12 Neutrons are in Sodium.
Compounds are formed when two or more elements chemically react together e.g.
carbon dioxide is a compound formed when carbon and oxygen chemically react.

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Isotopes are different atomic forms of the same element, which have the same number
of protons but a different number if neutrons.
Common pair of isotopes is carbon12 and carbon14.
The periodic table is laid out so that elements
with similar properties form columns (vertical).
These columns are called groups.
The group of which the element belongs corresponds to the number of electrons it has
in its outer shell. E.g.…read more

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When an atom gains an electron it becomes negatively charged.
For example Sodium loses one of its electrons and gives it to Chlorine. This means
Sodium and Chlorines shells become full. Therefore as Sodium lost an electron it will
become Na+ and Chlorine will become Cl as it has gained an electron.
Ionic bonds always produce giant ionic structures.
The ions form a closely packed regular lattice arrangement.
There are very strong chemical bonds between all the ions.…read more

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However going down the group the outer shell of electrons becomes increasingly far
from the nucleus.
The inner shells provide shielding.
This means that the outer shell electrons get shielded from the attraction of the +ve
As group 1 atoms get bigger the outer electron is more easily lost. The force of
attraction between the positivelycharged nucleus and the negativelycharged outer
electron becomes weaker, which is why the outer electron is more easily lost.…read more

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Both alkanes and alkenes carry out combustion in oxygen producing carbon dioxide and
Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes due to addition reactions occurring to their
double bond. The alkanes are saturated so addition does not occur.
Polymerisation is a reaction whereby alkenes bond to one another forming long chains.
The products of polymerisation are called polymers or plastics.
Alkenes readily carry out polymerisation as they can add to their double bonds.…read more


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