Chemistry Revision Notes on Atomic Structure, Bonding and Organic Chemistry Introduction

Chemistry Revision Notes on Atomic Structure, Bonding and Organic Chemistry Introduction.

Amendments:
Relative Mass. Relative Charge
Proton. 1. 1
Electron. 1/1836. -1
Neutron. 1. 0

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Chemistry Revision

An atom is the smallest part of an element.

It contains a nucleus which is made up of protons and neutrons

Electrons orbit the nucleus

Relative Relative
Mass Charge
Protons 1 1
Electrons 1 1
Neutrons 1/1879 0






PROTONS ARE EQUAL TO ELECTRONS

If some electrons are added…

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Isotopes are different atomic forms of the same element, which have the same number
of protons but a different number if neutrons.


Common pair of isotopes is carbon12 and carbon14.






The periodic table is laid out so that elements
with similar properties form columns (vertical).

These columns are called groups.…

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When an atom gains an electron it becomes negatively charged.


For example Sodium loses one of its electrons and gives it to Chlorine. This means
Sodium and Chlorines shells become full. Therefore as Sodium lost an electron it will
become Na+ and Chlorine will become Cl as it has gained…

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However going down the group the outer shell of electrons becomes increasingly far
from the nucleus.

The inner shells provide shielding.

This means that the outer shell electrons get shielded from the attraction of the +ve
nucleus.

As group 1 atoms get bigger the outer electron is more easily lost.…

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Both alkanes and alkenes carry out combustion in oxygen producing carbon dioxide and
water.
Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes due to addition reactions occurring to their
double bond. The alkanes are saturated so addition does not occur.
Polymerisation is a reaction whereby alkenes bond to one another forming long…

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