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Oxidation of alcohols

Alcohols are oxidised with acidified dichromate ions (Cr2O72)

This mixture can be made from potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid. (K2CrO7)

During the reaction, the acidified potassium dichromate changes colour from orange to green.

Primary alcohols

Primary alcohols are oxidised to aldehydes and then carboxylic acids and water…

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Carbonyl Compound Tests

Aldehydes and ketones can be detected using 2, 4dinitrophenylhydraxine (2, 4DNP)

A solution of 2, 4DNP with methanol and sulphuric acid is known as Brady's reagent.

If an aldehyde or ketone is present then the solution will turn yellow or orange.

Only works for aldehyde and ketones.…

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Triglycerides and health

Fats and oils come from saturated or unsaturated fatty acids
Foods high in saturated fats are bad for you ­ increased risk of heart disease by raising
blood cholesterol levels.
Unsaturated fats were presumed to be healthy but they can exist in two states: cis and Trans…

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Ethyl/methyl ester of a fatty acid. Made by transesterification.

React triglycerides with methanol/ethanol with sodium/potassium hydroxide.


Fats and oils are esters of long chain carboxylic acids called fatty acids. Fats are solid and
oils are liquid.
Triglycerides are triesters of glycerol (propane1, 2, 3triol) and 3 fatty acids joined…

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Esterification is the reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water.

Esters can be made by reacting a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst
(Sulphuric acid)

See diagram in book

Esters can also be prepared by…

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Addition polymerisation

All the atoms in the monomer are used. Made from a monomer with C=C bond.

Condensation Polymerisation

Monomers join up with the expulsion of small molecules. Not all the original atoms are present in the
polymer. Can be made from monomers with 2 different functional groups. Condensation…

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In a polyamide, the monomers have a carboxyl group, COOH and an amine group, NH2

Polyamides can be made from two different monomers a carboxylic acid monomer and an amine
monomer, or they can be made from one type of monomer with both functional groups
(polypeptides and proteins).


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