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Atomic number is the bottom number of the element ·
Mass number is the top number of the element ·
Number of neutrons= Atomic number-Mass number ·
Number of protons=Number of electrons ·
-1 0.0005 0 Electron
1 +1 Neutron 1 Proton
Charge Mass
Electrons -Negative charge -They are in…

Page 2

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The maximum number of electrons in each shell is: 1st shell : 2 2nd shell: 8 3rd shell: 8
Electron configuration
an element has determines its period
Rows are called periods -Each period represents another full shell of electrons -Number of shells
outer shells -Elements in the same group have…

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· NaCl dissolves to form a solution that conducts electricity
form so they can carry a current
· They conduct electricity when molten because the ions are free to move when in molten
· They have high melting and boiling points due to strong chemical bonds
aren't free to move…

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Potassium=Lilac flame
Alkali metals burn with colours: Lithium=Red Flame Sodium=Yellow/orange flame
Example of reaction with water: 2Na+ 2H#O ===> 2NaOH + H#
Alkali metals continued
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Electrolysis
Definition: Electrolysis is the breaking down of a substance using electricity -It needs a
liquid -the electrolyte- to…

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4OH# ====>2H#O + O# + 4e# 2H# + 2e# ====> H# Anode Cathode
Learn these off by heart:
2 water molecules
· At the anode , 4 Hydroxide ions lose their electrons and become 1 oxygen molecule and
· At the cathode , 2 Hydrogen ions accept 2 electrons to…

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replaced frequently so it is an expensive process
· Electrolysis uses a lot of electricity,lots of energy is needed and the cathode needs to be
-Decomposition of aluminium oxide= Aluminium oxide =====> Aluminium+Oxygen
(Oxidation) 2O2# ======>O + 4e At the anode:
(Reduction) + 3e# =====> Al At the cathode
·…

Page 7

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Cl# + 2KI ====> I# + 2KCl Cl# + 2KBr ====> Br# + 2KCl

More reactive halogens displace less reactive ones

2Na + 2Cl# ====> 2NaCl 2K + 2Br# ======> 3KBr#

Halogens react with alkali metals to form salts



Halogens continued
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Halogens

· Group…

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Bridges-Strong
of electricty,easily bent Aluminium-Aeroplanes-Low density,Strong,Doesn't corrode Steel/Iron-
Stainless steel-saucepans-Good conductor of heat Copper-Electrical wiring-Good conductor
Good conductors of heat and electricity ·
Malleable ·
High tensile strength ·
Strong metallic bonding ·
Strong attractions between the free electrons ·
Shiny ·
High density ·
High melting and boiling points…

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· Copper compounds are blue
· Iron III compounds are orange
· Iron II compounds are light green
They have colourful compounds:
ammonia 2)Nickel is used for the hydrogenation of alkenes
· They make good catalysts: 1) Iron is the catalyst used in Haber process for making
They are found…

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Precipitation
Definition:A percipitation reaction is where 2 solutions react and an insoluble solid forms in the solid
CuSO# + 2NaOH ===> Cu(OH)# + Na#SO#
Or this can be written as an ionic equation
Cu2 + 2OH ====> Cu(OH)
· Copper Hydroxide is a blue solid
· Iron…

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