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VEGETABLE OIL Can be HARDENED by adding HYDROGEN To harden you
·Are extracted by making them solid at room temperature for
things like spreads and margarines ·Nickel Catalyst
pressing or distillation
·Are high in energy High Boiling Point Gives a different flavour, texture
and loads more energy (too much ·Hydrogen to be
will make you obese)
·Can be used as fuels So useful for cooking
added and break
·Are UNSATURATED (frying instead of boiling)
Unsaturated fats are better for you than Saturated fats
You can make Non-Biodegradable plastics are
CRACKING HYDROCARBONS ETHANOL You can make BAD!
using ETHENE ETHANOL + CO2
Make big molecules into small ones! and STEAM OR using YEAST They don't rot away.
with a catalyst enzymes. Biodegradable plastics will
-heat them with steam and a catalyst
(from crude oil) (from plants) decompose = less rubbish!
Products: Alkanes (used for fuel) +
Alkenes (used for plastics,
medicines, dyes and explosives) ·Made from vegetable oils Making Plastics:
·Less harmful to environment
Small molecules (monomers) added together
Test for double bonds: ·CARBON NEUTRAL
make new long molecules (polymers)
·Lose farming land
Bromine water (iodine water will also work)
·Disruption of habitats
Alkenes (with double bonds) go COLOURLESS!
CRUDE OIL e.g. ethanol from sugar
A mixture of hydrocarbon compounds
Te Make it useful
Hydrogen New polymers are designed to work for Carbon Dioxide made from burning fuels
FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION specific jobs. SMART POLYMERS can
change in different temperatures and
is a GREEN HOUSE GAS adding to
ONLY! Size effects BOILING POINT light. GLOBAL WARMING
We are also able to recycle plastics to
find more uses for them.
Filters and CATALYTIS
CONVERTERS can be fitted to
factories and cars to reduce
You can also get
Sulfur impurities also burnt cause ... PARTICULATES
Alkanes Saturated hydrocarbons. Bad for you and
No double bonds, Maximum
High temperatures in
Hydrogen, Formula: CnH2n+2 engines can also cause
the nitrogen from the air
to form acids too.
Alkenes Unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Burning fuels in plenty of oxygen gives CO2 + H2O
Double bonds, Less Hydrogen
Formula: CnH2n COMPLETE COMBUSTION
Burning without enough oxygen gives CO (carbon monoxide) + H2O
INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION BAD!…read more
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OIL DOES NOT DISSOLVE IN WATER Wegener's Big Idea
But they can be spread out in
suggested the idea
each other to make an of continental drift
(moving plates) but (Solid)
EMULSION people found it hard
to believe, they
couldn't see it and
Emulsions are used in: Adding an EMULSIFIER stops the oil had other ideas like
and water separating it will also land bridges, sinking
· Food continents and the
e.g. Mayonnaise, salad dressings & ice creams improve texture crust shrinking. Also
he couldn't explain
· Paints Yummy! HOW it worked. All our resources come The crust is made up of
It took fossils and from the crust, oceans tectonic plates which
rocks evidence to
Experimental Variables convince people.
and atmosphere. are always moving..
Very very very .. Slowly.
Independent Variable the one
I CHANGE Earths Early Atmosphere Radiation in the mantle causes
Dependent Variable the one you ·Formed by volcanoes added CO2, CONVECTION CURRENTS which
RECORD Water and Nitrogen move the plates
Control Variables the ones you KEEP ·Which cooled and condensed into
CONSTANT (the same) oceans
·Plants then appeared and changes plates meet and
Calculating an average Just a CO2 to oxygen! (photosynthesis) collide or rub
Add up all your results reminder!
against one another
(except any anomalies you are leaving out)
we get natural
10 + 11 + 12 + 14 = 47
The Primordial soup experiment suggested that life started with a disasters
Divide your answer by the number of values you added together.
Here 4 values were used.. lightening spark, others suggested a meteorite or the deep ocean
So 47 event. Without a time machine we just don't know what started life We don't know when this will happen so
4 = 11.75 on earth! we cannot predict these events
The Carbon Takes a very
long time! Earths Atmosphere Now Answering Evaluation questions
Cycle You must give a balanced
Mostly argument if you can!
The oxygen and
Problem 2 reasons why you might agree or
nitrogen think something is good.
2 reasons why you might disagree
or think something is bad.
Carbon in the
Is very quick!
atmosphere And a conclusive statement.
has Gases in the
The Carbon (your end opinion )
cycle: Shows air can be 80%
because we the movement separated by ALWAYS read the information you
now burn of carbon in fractional have been given. Sometimes the
and out of the
more fossil distillation for
atmosphere answer is hidden in the question.
fuels! use in industry…read more