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Chemistry GCSE
Additional Science, Modules
C4, C5 and C6

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Table of Contents



C4: Chemical Patterns

A: The periodic table

B: The alkali metals

C: Chemical equations

D: The halogens

E: The discovery of helium

F: Atomic structure

G: Electrons in atoms

H: Electronic structures and the periodic table

I: Salts

J: Ionic theory

K: Ionic theory & atomic structure…

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E: Chemicals of the biosphere

F: Human impacts on the environment

G: Metals from the lithosphere

H: Structure and bonding in metals

I: The life cycle of metals

C6: Chemical synthesis

A: The chemical industry

B: Acids and alkalis

C: Salts from acids

D: Salts in our lives

E: Purity…

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C4: Chemical
Patterns
A: The periodic table
Relative atomic masses are the masses of atoms in comparison to the lightest

atom, hydrogen, on a scale where hydrogen is 1.

Groups of three are groups of atoms with similar properties, where the relative atomic

mass of the middle element is the…

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B: The alkali metals
The alkali metals are reactive metals found in group one of the periodic table

that react with water to form alkaline solutions.

Properties of alkali metals:

o Can be cut with a knife

o Shiny, but tarnish quickly with air, because a layer of oxide is…

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C: Chemical equations
During a chemical change, there is no change in mass.


In chemical equations, the number of atoms of each element has to be the

same on each side of the arrow.

To write an equation, you need to know:

o The reactants, or starting chemicals

o The…

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D: The halogens
The halogens are very reactive nonmetals found in group 7 of the periodic table.

Halogen means salt former, and the halogen elements form salts when they react

with metals.

The halogens are molecular, and normally come in pairs (Cl2, Br
2, I
2).




Low melting and boiling…

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E: The discovery of helium
Bunsen invented the Bunsen burner that is still used in labs today.

He realized different chemicals produced different flame colours.

Spectroscopy was used to record the line spectra of elements.

Janssen and Lockyer discovered helium when they were studying the line spectra of

the elements…

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The closer to the nucleus a shell is, the more energy is needed to remove the

electrons.



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H: Electronic structures and the
periodic table
Periodic tables show the atoms in order of proton number instead of R.A.M.

Periods show the filling of each shell with electrons.

Groups have the same number of electrons in their outer shell, which gives them

similar properties.

Elements with one or two…

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