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C2 ­ Material Choices ­ Revision Notes
All materials are made up of chemicals. We use a variety of materials including metals, ceramics and
polymers.

Mercury is a chemical element. It's made from mercury atoms. Hg

Water is a chemical. It's made of lots of water molecules. Molecules are groups…

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not permanently damage it.
Hardness Hardness is how difficult it is to The hardest natural material is
cut into a material. diamond, it can only be cut by
another diamond. Diamonds
can cut most materials ­ lots of
industrial drills have diamond
tips.
Density Density is a material's mass per…

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Hydrocarbon properties change as the chain get longer, short chain molecules have lower boiling
points - they're often gases - and long chain hydrocarbons have higher boiling points, they can be
quite viscous (thick and sticky). It is down to the forces in between hydrocarbons.

There are two main bonds…

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A small amount of hydrocarbons from crude oil are used to make new compounds for use in
things such as fertilisers, plastics, medicines, and food.
Some of the less useful hydrocarbons can also be split apart to make more useful
hydrocarbons and ethane, which is really useful for making plastics.…

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The stronger the bonds or forces between the polymer chains, the more energy is needed to break
them apart, and the higher the melting point.

Polymers can be chemically modified to change their properties:

1. Polymers can be modified to change their chain length, polymers with short chains are easy…

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