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Page 1

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4 bonding pairs is tetrahedral,
3 bonding 1 lone, pyramidal,
2 bonding, 2 lone, bent
3 bonding pairs is planar triangular,
2 bonding, 1 double, planar triangular,
2 bonding pairs is linear,
1 triple, 1 bonding linear,
2 double bonds is linear.

Titrations - KIARC

Page 2

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CO3 2-

To remember them, I made up this weird thing; No, oh ho.. so co!
And then NH4+ is just memorable.
So like, the first three before the pause are all 1-, and those after the pause are 2-. Anyway it
works for me 'cause I made…

Page 3

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F -1 (except in OF2)
Cl -1 (except when combined with O or F)
O - 2 (except in O2-)
H +1

For concentration calculations, remember the triangle:

The units for volume should always be in dm^3, and to convert between cm and dm, divide
or multiply…

Page 4

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The halogens exist as diatomic molecules, with the bonds between the two atoms (the
intramolecular bonds) being covalent, and the bonds between the molecules (the
intermolecular bonds) being instantaneousdipole-induced dipole bonds.
As you go down the group, the diatoms become larger and have more electrons, which
means the intermolecular bonds…

Page 5

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Storage and transport of Halogens.. here comes the extra boring bit.
Fluorine is too reactive to store, and so is made on site as and when needed by electrolysing
liquid hydrogen fluoride.
Chlorine is a highly toxic gas, and as such is transported by rail or road tanker as a…

Page 6

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- used to make germicides
- used to diagnose thyroid disease

Preparation of halogenoalkanes - SSDD
Reaction is carried out in a separating funnel.
1) SHAKE with sodium hydrogencarbonate solution to remove any acidic impurities.
2) SEPARATE from other immiscible liquids using a separating funnel.
3) DRY with anhydrous sodium…

Page 7

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Nucleophile Equation
HOH R-Hal + H2O ---> ROH + H- + Hal- (alcohol)
OH- R- Hal + OH- ---> ROH + Hal- (alcohol)
NH3 R-Hal + NH3 ---> RNH2 + H+ + Hal- (amine)

Reaction conditions for above:
1) heat under reflux
2) heat under reflux with aqueous sodium hydroxide…

Page 8

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The CFC story
CFCs have a lifespan of over 100 years in the troposphere and are very reactive.
The problem is that they photodissociate to produce chlorine radicals which deplete ozone.

-Joe Farman discovered a whole in the ozone layer using UV spectroscopy.
- NASA computers treated the low readings…

Page 9

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The atmosphere - TSI
Troposphere, Stratosphere, Ionosphere.
Troposphere comprised of:
- 78% Nitrogen
- 21% Oxygen
- 1% other (argon 0.93% and carbon dioxide 0.038%)

To convert from ppm to percentage, divide by 10,000.
e.g. 500ppm = 0.05%

Energy interacts with matter
Quantised energy levels - TRoVE
- translational: molecule…

Page 10

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Dynamic equilibrium: when the forwards reaction and backwards reaction are happening at
the same rate in a closed system, with the product:reactant ratio remaining constant.
Le Chatelier's principle: if a system is at equilibrium and a change is made to it, the system
will respond to counteract that change as…



"excuse the shxt *** drawing" LOOOOOOOOOOOOL

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