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C7 ­ Further Chemistry

C7.1 Green chemistry

The chemical industry synthesises chemicals on different scales according to their value:

Bulk chemicals are made on a larger scale, for example:

Sulfuric acid
Sodium hydroxide
Phosphoric acid

Fine chemicals are made on a small scale, for example:

Food additives

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The sustainability of a process depends on:

Whether or not the feedstock is renewable

Atom economy ­ the final product should aim to contain all the atoms used in the process,
thereby reducing waste products and increasing the yield

Atom economy =Mass
of atoms in the useful product

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To calculate a reactants mass:

Steps Example ­ Find the mass of Zn that can be
extracted from 100g of ZnO
Write down the formula The formula is ZnO
Work out the relative formula mass RFM is 65+16 = 81
RAM of Zn
Work out the percentage mass of metal…

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Alkanes do not react with aqueous reagents because C-C and C-H bonds are difficult to break and
are therefore unreactive.

However alkanes tend to burn well in plenty of air to produce carbon dioxide and water. For

Propane + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water

C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 +4H2O…

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Ethanol + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water
C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O

Alcohols react with sodium to produce a salt and hydrogen gas ­ it is the presence of the functional
group ­OH that allows this reaction to occur:
Ethanol + Sodium Sodium Ethoxide + Hydrogen

2C2H5OH + Na…

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Ethene is reacted with steam at high
temperatures and in the presence of a
phosphoric acid catalyst
Any unreacted ethane and steam are
recycled back into the process so that they
are not wasted

Carboxylic acids form a homologous series with the functional group ­COOH ­ the presence of

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Ethanoic Acid + Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Ethanoate + Water

Reaction of a carboxylic acid with a carbonate:

Acid + Metal Carbonate Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide

Ethanoic Acid + Calcium Carbonate Calcium Ethanoate + Water + Carbon Dioxide

Esters are formed when a carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol…

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added. The mixture will react with any remaining substance containing no water) calcium chloride
acid and extract it into the aqueous phase ­ the is added to remove any remaining water
aqueous phase is then run off leaving the ester in molecules ­ the calcium chloride is removed
the funnel…

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Breaking a chemical bond requires a lot of energy ­ endothermic process

In a chemical reaction, new substances are produced ­ in order for this to happen, the bonds in the
reactants must be broken and new bonds made to form the products.

The activation energy is the energy needed…

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Some chemical reactions are reversible, i.e. the products can react together to produce the original
reactions. In an equation shows that the reaction can go in either the forward or reverse
direction depending on the conditions

A reversible reaction will reach a state of equilibrium if it is in a…



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