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Page 1

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C7
­
Further
Chemistry


Alkanes


· Alkanes
are
a
family
of
hydrocarbons.

o Carbon
surrounded
by
single
covalently
bonded
hydrogen.

o All
alkanes
have
the
formula
C(n)H(2n+2)


· Methane,
ethane,
propane
and
butane
are
alkanes.

o The
amounts
of
C's
increases
by
1
as
you
go
along.

· Alkanes
burn…

Page 2

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Esters


· Esters
have
functional
group
­COO-

o Formed
from
alcohol
and
a
carboxylic
acid,
called
an
esterification
reaction.

o Alcohol
+
carboxylic
acid

ester
+
water



· Esters
are
often
used
in
flavourings
and
perfumes.

o Pleasant
smell
often
sweet
and
fruity.

o Volatile,
ideal
for
perfumes
as
they…

Page 3

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Energy
transfer
in
reactions


· Reactions
are
exothermic
or
endothermic.

o Exothermic
gives
out
energy
to
the
surroundings,
normally
shown
by
a
rise
in

temperature.


o Endothermic
reaction
takes
in
energy
from
the
surroundings
and
usually
shown
by
a

fall
in
temperature.

· Energy
level
diagrams
show
if
its
endothermic…

Page 4

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o A
non-aqueous
solution
is
something
dissolved
in
anything
other
than
water.

· Standard
procedures
mean
everyone
does
things
in
the
same
way.

o An
agreed
method
of
working.

o Can
be
in
a
company,
nationally
or
internationally.


Analysis
­
Chromatography


· Chromatography
used
two
phases.

o Mobile
phase
­…

Page 5

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The
chemical
industry


· Some
chemicals
are
produced
on
a
large
scale

o We
need
thousands
and
thousands
of
tonnes
of
some
chemicals
every
year.

· And
some
are
produced
on
a
smaller
scale.

o We
don't
need
as
many
drugs,
food
additives
and
fragrances.

· New
chemical
products
need…

Page 6

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Making
ethanol


· Ethanol
can
be
made
my
fermentation

o Sugar
(yeast)
ethanol
+
carbon
dioxide

o Yeast
contains
zymase
an
enzyme
which
is
important
in
fermentation.

o Zymase
works
best
at
pH
4,
anything
else
will
stop
it
working.

o Oxygen
converts
ethanol
to
ethanoic
acid,
so
it
needs…

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