Chemistry (C7) - Revision Notes

Fun revision notes on chemistry c7.

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Alex
  • Created on: 24-05-11 23:30
Preview of Chemistry (C7) - Revision Notes

First 549 words of the document:

C7
­
Further
Chemistry
Alkanes
· Alkanes
are
a
family
of
hydrocarbons.
o Carbon
surrounded
by
single
covalently
bonded
hydrogen.
o All
alkanes
have
the
formula
C(n)H(2n+2)
· Methane,
ethane,
propane
and
butane
are
alkanes.
o The
amounts
of
C's
increases
by
1
as
you
go
along.
· Alkanes
burn
to
give
carbon
dioxide
and
water.
· Alkanes
don't
react
with
most
chemicals.
o They
don't
react
with
substances
dissolved
in
water.
Alcohols
· Alcohols
have
an
­OH
functional
group
and
end
in
­ol
o General
formula
C(n)H(2n+1)OH.
o Methanol
CHOH
and
Ethanol
CHOH
· Alcohols,
alkanes
and
water
­
Similarities
and
differences.
o Ethanol
is
soluble
in
water,
alkanes
are
insoluble.
o Ethanol
and
water
are
both
good
solvents.
o Ethanol
has
a
lower
boiling
point
the
water
(78
degrees)
but
much
higher
than
the
equivalent
alkane
(ethane
-103
degrees).
o Alcohols
and
alkanes
are
volatile,
but
water
is
not
volatile.
· Alcohols
are
used
as
solvents
and
fuels
and
in
manufacturing.
o They
can
dissolve
lots
of
things
water
can't.
o Ethanol
is
used
in
perfumes,
as
it
can
mix
both
oils
and
water.
o Pure
ethanol
is
clean
burning
so
its
sometimes
mixed
with
fuel
for
cars
to
conserve
crude
oil.
· Alcohols
react
with
sodium.
o It
produces
sodium
ethoxide
and
hydrogen
in
a
gentle
reaction
o The
reaction
with
water
is
much
more
vigorous
and
produces
sodium
hydroxide
and
hydrogen.
Carboxylic
Acids
· Carboxylic
acids
have
the
functional
group
­COOH
· Carboxylic
acids
react
like
other
acids.
o Carboxylic
acids
react
with
metals
to
salt
and
hydrogen.
o With
alkalis
to
form
salt
and
water.
o With
carbonates
to
give
salt,
water
and
carbon
dioxide.
· Carboxylic
acids
stink.
o Ethanol
+
Oxygen
Ethanoic
acid
+
water

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Esters
· Esters
have
functional
group
­COO-
o Formed
from
alcohol
and
a
carboxylic
acid,
called
an
esterification
reaction.
o Alcohol
+
carboxylic
acid
ester
+
water
· Esters
are
often
used
in
flavourings
and
perfumes.
o Pleasant
smell
often
sweet
and
fruity.
o Volatile,
ideal
for
perfumes
as
they
evaporate
easily.
o Flavourings,
aromas,
ointments,
solvents
and
plasticisers.
· Fats
and
oils
are
esters
of
glycerol
and
fatty
acids.
o Glycerol
is
an
alcohol,
fatty
acids
and
glycerol
combine
to
make
fats
and
oils.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Energy
transfer
in
reactions
· Reactions
are
exothermic
or
endothermic.
o Exothermic
gives
out
energy
to
the
surroundings,
normally
shown
by
a
rise
in
temperature.
o Endothermic
reaction
takes
in
energy
from
the
surroundings
and
usually
shown
by
a
fall
in
temperature.
· Energy
level
diagrams
show
if
its
endothermic
or
exothermic.
o If
the
difference
between
the
energy
of
the
reactants
and
that
of
the
products
is
positive
its
endothermic,
if
its
negative
its
exothermic.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

A
non-aqueous
solution
is
something
dissolved
in
anything
other
than
water.
· Standard
procedures
mean
everyone
does
things
in
the
same
way.
o An
agreed
method
of
working.
o Can
be
in
a
company,
nationally
or
internationally.
Analysis
­
Chromatography
· Chromatography
used
two
phases.
o Mobile
phase
­
Molecules
which
can
move,
always
liquid
or
gas.
o Stationary
phase
­Molecules
can't
move.
Solid
or
thick
ink.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

The
chemical
industry
· Some
chemicals
are
produced
on
a
large
scale
o We
need
thousands
and
thousands
of
tonnes
of
some
chemicals
every
year.
· And
some
are
produced
on
a
smaller
scale.
o We
don't
need
as
many
drugs,
food
additives
and
fragrances.
· New
chemical
products
need
lots
of
research.
o Testing
using
trial
and
error.
o Computer
models.
o Designing
or
refining
the
manufacture
of
the
chemical
­
safely,
efficiently
and
cost
effectively.
o Investigating
the
risks
to
the
environment.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Making
ethanol
· Ethanol
can
be
made
my
fermentation
o Sugar
(yeast)
ethanol
+
carbon
dioxide
o Yeast
contains
zymase
an
enzyme
which
is
important
in
fermentation.
o Zymase
works
best
at
pH
4,
anything
else
will
stop
it
working.
o Oxygen
converts
ethanol
to
ethanoic
acid,
so
it
needs
to
be
kept
away
from
the
process.
o When
the
concentration
of
ethanol
reaches
10%-20%
the
yeast
is
killed.…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all resources »