Chemistry C3- Higher

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Grade Content Book
C
3a
:
W
ha
t
ar
e
at
o
ms
lik
e?
1 D,C The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons. P 75
Protons Neutron Electron
Charge +1 0 1
Mass 1 1 0.
0005
(zer
o)
2 B ­A* At
oms
are
neutral
because
they
have
the
same
number
of
electrons
asprotons
3 D,C The
atomic (proton) number
is
the
number
of
protons
in
the
nucl
eus
of
an
atom P 76
The
mass (nucleon) number
as
the
tot
al
number
of
protons
and
neutrons
in
the
nucl
eus
of P 77
an
atom
Ma ss
number
1
2
C
At
omic number
6
Isotopes ar e
dif
fer
ent
forms of
the
same element t
hat
have t
he
same
atomi c
numb er
but
d i
ff
erent
ma ss
numb er
s.
4 B ­A* I
f
th e
atomic and mas s number
of el
eme nt
s and t
heir
i
sotopes ar
e known ,
i
e.
fr
om th e
P er
iodi
c Tabl
e.
I
t
is possibl
e to
w or
k out
t
he numb er
of
pr
o t
ons ,
neut
rons
an d
elect
rons
in an
atom.
Element Atomic No Mass No Protons Neutrons Electrons Charge
Hy droge 1 1 1 0 1 0
n
He l
ium 2 4 2 2 2 0
Lithi
um 3 7 3 4 3 0
5 D,C The
element
s i
n t
he
per
iodi
c t
abl
e ar
e ar
ranged
in
order
of
atomic number
6 D,C El
ect
rons
occupy
the
space
around
the
nucl
eus.
El
ect
rons
occupyshells
7 B ­A* Then
u mbe r
of
el
ect
ronsi
neachs
hel
l
of
ana
tom
i
scal
ledi
ts
Elect
roni
c
Str
uct
ure,
andc
anb
ew
ri
tt
en
as
fol
lows
:
Cal
cium i
s atomi
c number
20
has
20 el
ectr
ons
:
Ca
­ 2.
8.8.
2
(
2 el
ect
rons
in
1st
shel
l,
8
in
2nd
&
3rd
shel
ls,
2
in
4t
h
s
h el
l
)
C
3b
:
1

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H
o
w
at
o
ms
co
m
bi
ne
­
Io
ni
c
bo
nd
in
g
8 D,C An
ion
is
a charged
atom
or
group
of
atoms,
eg.
C
l,
Na+
,
N O 2
3 .
P 79
Positive ions
for
m when
atoms
lose electrons.
e.
g.
2+
ions
for
m by
the
loss
of
2 el
ect
rons
Negative ions
for
m when
atoms
gain electrons
e.g.…read more

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C
3c
:
Co
va
le
nt
Bo
nd
in
g
an
d
th
e
str
uc
tur
e
of
th
e
Pe
rio
di
c
Ta
bl
e
1 D,C Nonmet
als
combi
ne
toget
her
by
sharing electrons
and
thi
s i
s cal
ledcovalent bonding
P 84
2
1 B ­A* Non ­
me t
als joi
n t
o ma ke a
molecule.…read more

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D,C A
GROUP in t
he Per iodi
c Tabl
e i
s a
vert
ical
col
umn
of
elemen ts, al
l
these
element
s have
simi
l
a r
P 85
chemi
cal
properti
es.
6 A
PERIOD in
the
P er i
odi
c Tabl
e i
s a hor
izont
al
row of
el
eme nts.…read more

Page 5

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D,C Group
7 el
ement
s ar
e cal
led
the
H al
ogens
. P 91
At
r
o om
temper
atur
e:
chlor
ine
is
a green
ga s,
br
omi
ne
is
an
orange
li
qui
d and
iodi
ne
is
a grey
sol
id
.
2
2 D,C Halog ensr
e act
vigorousl
yw
itha
lkal
i /
group1me
t al
s.…read more

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D,C Compounds
of
tr
ansit
ion
metal
s ar
e often
col
our
ed
: P 100
1 C opper compounds
are
blue
I
ron
(I
I)
compounds
are
li
ght
gr
een
Ir
on
(I
II
)
comp ounds
are
orange
/
brown
Tr
ansi
ti
on
metal
s and
thei
r
compounds ar
e of
ten
u sed
a s
cat
alyst
s:
I r
on
in
the
H aber
pr
ocess
(t
o make ammo ni
a)
N ickel
i
n t…read more

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B ­A* Met
als
conduct el
ectr
ici
ty
becau se the
delocalised electrons
can
move
easi
l
y. P 105
Di
sadvant
ages of
superconduct
o r
s.
7
o nly
w or
k at
ver
y l
o w t
emp e r
a t
ures
t
he
need
to
devel
op
super
conduct
ors
that
wi
ll
wor
k at
20
°C.…read more

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