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Atoms


Particle Charge Mass
Proton +1 1
Neutron 0 1
Electron -1 1/1863


Atomic Structure:

In nucleus ­ protons & neutrons (AKA nucleons)
In outer shells ­ electrons
This therefore means that the atom is neutral

Number of protons = Number of neutrons

Atomic and Mass number:

Mass number ­…

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The four stages:




Prepare the sample
Vaporise the sample: put the sample into low pressure and boil
to turn sample into a gas
Inject the sample into the Mass Spectrometer
Mass spectrometer requires a vacuum to prevent air
molecules from hitting the ions




Stage 1: Ionisation

Particles within the atom…

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Stage 2: Acceleration

The positively charged ions are attracted to negatively
charged plates causing them to accelerate




Stage 3: Deflection

Ions need to be deflected by magnetic fields in order to get
to the detector.
The heavier the ion, the less the deflection
Just right

Too light

Too heavy

Eg.…

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The greater the number of particles landing at a single point on
the detector, the greater the electric current and the larger
the peak.



Using Mass Spectrometry to find out the Relative Atomic Mass

(Mean mass of an atom / mass of one atom)



Eg: Neon


(90 x 20) +…

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Each shell must be filled up before proceeding to the next shell
starting at 1s.
When the 3p level is full, you start on the 4s level rather than
the 3d level.
Although the 4s shell gets filled before the 3d shell, while
writing it, the 3d shell must go…

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As you go down a group, the number of shells increases. This
means the electrons are further away from the shell due to a
larger atomic radius which means less nuclear attraction.
Therefore the further down you get in a group, the easier an
electron is to be removed.
There…

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