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Properties What happens as we go down a group? What happens as we go across a
period?

Ionisation Energy Decrease Increase
More electrons are added to the Number of protons increases.
atoms. Stronger positive charge in the
More shells created. nucleus.
The outer electrons are shielded More attraction between nucleus…

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the nucleus. Electrons come off more between the nucleus and the electrons.
easily and atoms react faster. They come off more easily.


Bonding

Ionic Bonding

Definition:
Ionic bonding is the result of an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
Between one metal and one nonmetal.
Metals lose electrons and…

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Malleable and ductile because when a blow is given, positive ions are still surrounded by electrons
and the bonds are not broken.
High melting and boiling points because there is a strong attraction between the electrons and
positive ions and this extends through the whole lattice.



Covalent bonding

Definition:
A…

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Electronegativity is the power of an atom to attract electron density towards itself in a covalent bond.
Electronegativity increases up the group because atoms get smaller, less main levels, less shielding
between the outer electrons and nucleus, and more attractions. The shared electrons are pulled to the
nucleus.
Electronegativity increases…

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This happens in water where the oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen and it has a lone pair
of electrons.
They are dipole dipole forces but they are much stronger because of the lone pair and the
hydrogen atoms are small and very electron deficient. The protons are exposed.
The…

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Summary table for the three
forces
van der Waals forces Dipoledipole force Hydrogen bond
Between all molecules and Between the molecules with Between an electron deficient hydrogen
atoms polar bond and the lone pairs on an electronegative
atom.
Temporary because Permanent because electron It can be broken and reformed because…

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