Chemistry AS AQA Unit 2 Extraction of Metals

Made these notes for my year 12 summer exam to revise and read over. There are spelling mistakes in most of my files but due to the busy exam schedule I had no time to correct them (sorry).

Most files have more information than what is needed but I feel it helps you feel more confident walking into the exam if you have a greater knowledge background and may help when having to apply knowledge to questions. Good luck :)

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  • Created on: 02-09-13 13:32
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Extraction of Metals
ELECTROLYSIS ­ Aluminium
Al is lightweight and resists corrosion
Its ore is Bauxite.
AlO
2Al3 + 6e 2Al
3O 1 ½ O + 6e
Add cryolite, NaAlF to reduce the melting point to 1240K which costs.
It uses a lot of electricity which costs.
Graphite electrodes need to be replaced every 3 weeks which cost.
It is positively a continuous process.
DISPLACEMENT ­ Titanium
Low density strong metal resistant to corrosion.
Its ore is Rutile.
TiO (titanium IV oxide)
Na or Mg reduces Ti in two steps:
1) TiO + 2C + 2Cl TiCl + 2CO
2) TiCl + 4Na/4Mg Ti + 4NaCl/2MgCl
1) done at 1173K
2) done at 1300K in Argon
Can't reduce with carbon as it forms TiC as it's brittle and stable.
Must purify by distillation.
Batch process which is slow and costs.
REDUCED BY CARBON IN A BLAST FURNACE
Iron
Used to make alloys
FeO
1) C + O CO
2) C + CO 2CO (reducing agent)
3) FeO + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO
2000k
Raw materials coke, limestone
Removing impurities: 1) Mg + S Mgs
2) C + O CO
P + O PO
3) CaCO CaO + CO
CaO + SiO CaSiO (slag)
Copper

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CuCO
CuCO CuO + CO
2CuO + C 2Cu + CO
Magnesium
MnO
MnO + C Mn + CO
DISPLACEMENT BY HYDROGEN ­ Tungsten
WO
WO + 3H W + 3HO
High temperature
H is flammable
Cannot use carbon because (WC) tungsten carbide is formed.…read more

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