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Extraction of Metals
Al is lightweight and resists corrosion
Its ore is Bauxite.
2Al3 + 6e 2Al
3O 1 ½ O + 6e
Add cryolite, NaAlF to reduce the melting point to 1240K which costs.
It uses a lot of electricity which costs.
Graphite electrodes need to be replaced every 3 weeks which cost.
It is positively a continuous process.
Low density strong metal resistant to corrosion.
Its ore is Rutile.
TiO (titanium IV oxide)
Na or Mg reduces Ti in two steps:
1) TiO + 2C + 2Cl TiCl + 2CO
2) TiCl + 4Na/4Mg Ti + 4NaCl/2MgCl
1) done at 1173K
2) done at 1300K in Argon
Can't reduce with carbon as it forms TiC as it's brittle and stable.
Must purify by distillation.
Batch process which is slow and costs.
REDUCED BY CARBON IN A BLAST FURNACE
Used to make alloys
1) C + O CO
2) C + CO 2CO (reducing agent)
3) FeO + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO
Raw materials coke, limestone
Removing impurities: 1) Mg + S Mgs
2) C + O CO
P + O PO
3) CaCO CaO + CO
CaO + SiO CaSiO (slag)
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CuCO CuO + CO
2CuO + C 2Cu + CO
MnO + C Mn + CO
DISPLACEMENT BY HYDROGEN Tungsten
WO + 3H W + 3HO
H is flammable
Cannot use carbon because (WC) tungsten carbide is formed.…read more