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Two electrons in outer (s-orbital) shell
Size of atoms get bigger going down the group as the number of filled energy shells
increase causing less nuclear attraction between the outer electrons and the nucleus.
Metals with high melting points (giant metallic structure)
Going down the group, the `sea' of delocalised electrons is further from the positive nuclei.
This causes weaker metallic bonds going down the group.
Group 2 lose their 2 outer electrons and form positively charged ions.
Ionisation energy required decreases going down the group as there is less nuclear
attraction between the outer electrons and the positive nuclei due to shielding by the
increasing inner shields of electrons.
Reaction with water
Metals get more reactive going down the group.
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E.G. M (s) + 2HO (l) M(OH) (aq) + H (g)
Or with steam more rapidly: Mg (s) + HO MgO (s) + H (g)
Solubility of Hydroxides
As we go down the group, they become more soluble. (From low solubility to HY solubility)
Hydroxides are all white solids.
E.G. Barium hydroxide, Ba(OH) (s) + aq Ba2+ (aq) + 20H (aq)
Produces a strongly alkaline solution.
Solubility of Sulfates
Less soluble going down the group.…read more