Chemistry AQA AS Unit 1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry

Made these notes for my year 12 summer exam to revise and read over. There are spelling mistakes in most of my files but due to the busy exam schedule I had no time to correct them (sorry).

Most files have more information than what is needed but I feel it helps you feel more confident walking into the exam if you have a greater knowledge background and may help when having to apply knowledge to questions. Good luck :)

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  • Created by: Chelcie
  • Created on: 02-09-13 13:09
Preview of Chemistry AQA AS Unit 1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry

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Introduction to Organic Chemistry
Chemistry of carbon compounds.
Carbon atoms form 4 covalent bonds.
Carbon-carbon bond relatively strong (347kJ mol1) and non polar.
Carbon-hydrogen bond slightly stronger (413kJ mol1)
Molecular formula found by: 1) the empirical formula, 2) the relative molecular mass of the
empirical formula, 3) the relative molecular mass of the molecule
Structural formula shows a molecule in a simplified form without showing all bonds, eg
CHCH
Methyl CH
Ethyl CH
Propyl CH
Butyl CH
Naming...
1. -ane (alkanes) OR ­ene (alkenes)
2. How many carbons does it have?
3. Functional groups?
4. Alphabetical order of functional groups
Haloalkanes Cl ­ Chloro
Fl ­ Fluro
Br ­ Bromo
I ­ Iodo
Alcohols -OH (...ol)
Aldehydes -CHO (...al)
Ketones -COR (...one)
Carboxylic Acids -COOH (...oic acid)
HOMOLOGOUS SERIES
A family of organic compounds with the SAME FUNCTIONAL GROUP but DIFFERENT CARBON
CHAIN LENGTH.
Same general formula (e.g. alkanes CnH2n+2 or alkenes CnH2n)
Similar chemical reactivity of the functional group (carbon chain length has little effect)
Different physical properties (solubility, boiling point, melting point) according to the
carbon chain length.

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Chain branching generally reduces melting pints (because the molecules pack together
less well)
STRUCTURAL ISOMERS
SAME MOLECULAR FORMULA but DIFFERENT STRUCTURAL FORMULA.
POSITIONAL ISOMERISM
The functional group is attached to the main chain at different points.
FUNCTIONAL GROUP ISOMERISM
Different functional groups (with same molecular formula)
CHAIN ISOMERISM
The hydrocarbon chain is arranged differently.
STEREOISOMERISM: Same molecular formula but differ in their spatial arrangement of the atoms.…read more

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