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Introduction to Organic Chemistry
Chemistry of carbon compounds.
Carbon atoms form 4 covalent bonds.
Carbon-carbon bond relatively strong (347kJ mol1) and non polar.
Carbon-hydrogen bond slightly stronger (413kJ mol1)
Molecular formula found by: 1) the empirical formula, 2) the relative molecular mass of the
empirical formula, 3) the relative molecular mass of the molecule
Structural formula shows a molecule in a simplified form without showing all bonds, eg
1. -ane (alkanes) OR ene (alkenes)
2. How many carbons does it have?
3. Functional groups?
4. Alphabetical order of functional groups
Haloalkanes Cl Chloro
Alcohols -OH (...ol)
Aldehydes -CHO (...al)
Ketones -COR (...one)
Carboxylic Acids -COOH (...oic acid)
A family of organic compounds with the SAME FUNCTIONAL GROUP but DIFFERENT CARBON
Same general formula (e.g. alkanes CnH2n+2 or alkenes CnH2n)
Similar chemical reactivity of the functional group (carbon chain length has little effect)
Different physical properties (solubility, boiling point, melting point) according to the
carbon chain length.
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Chain branching generally reduces melting pints (because the molecules pack together
SAME MOLECULAR FORMULA but DIFFERENT STRUCTURAL FORMULA.
The functional group is attached to the main chain at different points.
FUNCTIONAL GROUP ISOMERISM
Different functional groups (with same molecular formula)
The hydrocarbon chain is arranged differently.
STEREOISOMERISM: Same molecular formula but differ in their spatial arrangement of the atoms.…read more