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Mass Number total number of protons and neutrons
· Atomic Number number of protons ( note: protons=electrons)
· Compounds are made up of two or more elements and are chemically
· They are hard to separate
· Isotopes are different atomic forms of the same element which have the
same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
· Example:…read more

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Ionic Bonding
· In ionic bonding, atoms lose or gain electrons to form charged particles called ions
which are strongly attracted to one another
· Lose electrons- positive charge
· Gain electrons- negative charge
· Ionic compounds always have giant ionic lattices which are closely packed in a
regular lattice arrangement
· There are very strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely
charged ions in all directions
· They all have:
-high melting and boiling points (strong attraction between ions, lots of energy
needed to overcome attraction)
-dissolve easily in water (ions separate and are free to move, so they can carry an
electric current)…read more

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Ions and Formulas
· Ions have the electronic structure of a noble gas
· Elements that most readily form ions are that in Groups 1, 2, 6 and 7
· Group 1 (alkali metals) and 2 are metals and lose electrons to form
positively charged ions
· Group 6 and 7 (halogens) are non-metals and gain electrons to form
negatively charged ions
· The overall charge of any compound= 0 formula= MgCl2 >
· All negative charges in a compound must balance all the positive charges…read more

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Electronic Structure of Ions…read more

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Covalent Bonding
· Covalent bonds share electrons
· Key examples:
Hydrogen (H2) Chlorine (Cl2)
Methane (CH4)
Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) Water (H2O)…read more

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